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Woman's pilgrimage to the Holy Lan 



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I Be4icate ^hi$ "Volume* 


OOKS upon travels will be written to the end of 

^ It has been my privilege, in company with my 
husband, to visit most of the palaces, cathe- 
drals, and galleries of art in Europe, and the mosques 
and ruins in the East. The route of our journey was 
through England, France, Switzerland and Italy, where 
we joined the memorable " Quaker City excursion party '^ 
to the East. 

We remained with them about three months, during 
which time we visited Constantinople, the Black Sea, 
Sebastopol, Smyrna, Ephesus, the Holy Land, and Alex- 
andria, Egypt. There we parted from them, and taking 
one of the Austrian Lloyd steamers to Corfu, from thence 
we sailed through the Adriatic Sea to Trieste, visited the 
great Cave of Adelsberg in Austria, and crossed the Styrian 
Alps to Vienna. 


We returned through Central Europe, down the Rhine 
and across the German Sea, to Scotland and Ireland. 

It was our good fortune to see most of the crowned 
heads of the Old World, including the Queens of England 
and Prussia, Napoleon III., Eugenie, the Pope of Rome, 
the Sultan, and the Viceroy of Egypt. 

In company with the excursionists we visited the Em- 
peror and Empress of Russia at their summer residence 
on the shore of the Black Sea. 

During the journey I kept a daily record of passing 
scenes and incidents, not intending it for publication ; but 
at the urgent solicitation of many friends, I have con- 
sented to publish it, trusting that its perusal may prove a 
pleasure to the reader, as its wi^iting was to tlie author. 



^<. 1^^ *^^^ preparation of this interesting and instruc- 
^^ '^J tive volume, the authoress was peculiarly fitted by 
^y^ her % previous culture, for making the best use of 
the singularly fortunate circumstances which con- 
spired to give her an opportunity to enjoy advantages 
which do not come within the reach of the ordinary travel- 
er. Starting from New York and landing in England, 
her social position gave her access to many things which 
are out of the reach of tlie general tourist in that aristo- 
cratic island. Passing through England, France, Switzer- 
land, and Italy, she then joined the excursion party of the 
Quaker City, and remaining with them about three 
months, visited Constantinople, the Black Sea, Sebastopol, 
S.nyrna, Ephesus, the Holy Land, Alexandria, and Egypt. 
Then leaving tlie Quaker City party on their return, she 
went to Corfu, through the Adriatic to Trieste and 
through Austria, crossing the Styrian Alps to Vienna. 
Returning through Central Europe she passed down the 


Rhine, and crossed the German Ocean to Scotland. After 
a tour through the interesting scenes which the magic of 
Sir Walter Scott's pen has made household words through- 
out the world, she passed through Ireland, and took a 
steamer at Cork for New York. In as brief a sketch as 
this, nothing but the barest outline of her route can be 
given. For the descriptions of the interesting scenes she 
passed through, and the accounts of the distinguished per- 
sons she met : for the womanly insight into the social con- 
dition of the nations she visited and her sketches of their 
history and political organization, the reader must con- 
sult the volume itself. It is possible liere only to assure 
them that they will never regret so instructive and inter- 
esting a use of their leisure time. 


Quaker City off the Coast of Stria. — Frontispiece. 

The Royal" Exchange, London, - - - - 27 

Reception Day at Buckixcham Palace, - - 30 

Tomb of Napoleon, 38 


Palace of St. Cloud, 53 

Colosseum, Rome, .---.- lOO 

Castle of St. Anoelo, Rome, (text\ • - - 103 

Italian Peasantry, -....-- HO 

Naples Bay, - - - - - - - - 113 

Naples "Wagon, - - 117 

Neapolitan Flower Girl, - - - - -119 

Eruption of Vesuvius, _ . . - - 127 


Turkish Araba, " - - 150 

Turkish Boys, - - - 156 

Mosque of Sultan Achmet, Constantinople, - 160 

Muezzin Calling to Prayer, - - - - 164 


Whirling Dervishes, 168 

Rock-cut Church of Inkerman, - = - 171 

Odessa, Russia, - - 175 

Russian Droskt, (text), 177 

Merchant of Smyrna, (text), 196 

CoL^'TRY Mosque in Asia Minor, - - - 194 

Arab School Boy, (text), - - - - . - 207 

Chain of Lebanon, - - - -*- - 212 

Woman of Jaffa, - - - . - - - - 221 

NijEM, OUR Dragoman, 226 

A Turkish House in Jerusalem, - - - . 239 

Holy Sepulchre, . - - = ~ . 246 

Interior of the Mosque Omar, - = - _ 257 

Jerusalem, -------- 265 

Bethlehem, - - - - - - - " 281 

Sacred Grotto, (Bethlehem), - - - - 285 

Dead Sea, " - - - 287 

Pilgrim's Ford — River Jordan, . . - - 297 

Viceroy's Palace, 324 

Grape Gathering in Austria, . - - - 342 

Scene on the Danube, - - - - . - - 346 


Strasbourg Cathedral, . - - _ - 372 


Over the Sea, jy 

England and her Queen, 21 


France, .-•.. 33 


Paris and Napoleon, ----.. 33 

Switzerland, ----..., 52 

Crossing the Alps, ---••• 59 

The Midnight Ride, ---»o« (34 



Italy, - - - - - - -- -68 


Venice, "City of the Sea," _ _ - » - 73 

Milan and Genoa, 80 


Leghorn and Florence, ----- 85 


Rome, .--.-..-- 93 

From Rome to Naples, 1.07 

Vesuvius and Pompeii, 126 

The Pilgrims, 135 

Athens, --- 140 

Constantinople, - - - - - - - 145 


The Sultan and the Mosque, - - - - 150 


On the Black Sea, -168 


Visiting the Emperor of Russia, - - - 179 

Our Stay at Yalta, _-».-- 185 


S3IYRNA, 191 


Ephesus and its Ruins, 199 

From Smyrna to Syria, ^^^ 

Lebanon, ^^^ 

Jaffa, 216 

Starting on the Pilgrimage, - - - - 224 

Going up to Jerusalem, _ _ - . « 232 


The City of the Great King, - - - - 236 


Within the Holy City, . - » « . 242 

The People of Jerusalem, 249 

The Temple, - 255 

The Turkish Family, 262 

Outside the Walls, 269 

Mount of Qlives and Bethany, . - - _ 275 

Bethlehem, 280 

The Dead Sea, 288 

River Jordan, - - -- - - .296 

Bedouin Arabs, - - ^^^ 

Return to the Ship. -,---- 309 


Egypt, - - 3l4 


Leaving the Pilgrims, - - - - - - 322 

The Voyage, 329 

Cave of Adelsberg, 336 

Vienna, - - 344 

Salzburg and Munich, 353 

Baden Baden, 3g2 

Strasbourg, - 373 

DoAVN THE Rhine, 373 

Cologne, 388 

Brussels and Waterloo, - - . - 395 


Antwerp and the North Sea, - . - . 4q3 

Scotland, 409 

From Scotland and Ireland, home, ... 418 



>S we cannot cross the ocean in an American 
j> steamship, we take passage on a steamer 
carrying the English flag. The wharf is 
crowded with people, bidding good-bye to 
their friends, who are about departing on a voy- 
age to the Old World, along with us. Among the 
crowd are our friends who are waitinsr to wave 
their last adieu. The anchor is up, our moorings 
unloosed, the bell strikes, the ship's gun sounds the 
farewell, and we sail out of New York harbor. 
Now come the mingled thoughts of pleasure and 
sadness, with memories of those left behind ; but I 
am about to realize what I have always ardently 
desired, a visit to foreign lands. 

I am roused from my reverie by the sound of the 


gong summoning the passengers to dinner. Here 
we gather, both young and old, about one hundred 
and fifty persons, and how full of life a.nd anticipa- 
tion they seem ! Seated opposite is an English 
clergyman and his family. He is a specimen of a 
strict minister of the church of England, and is 
already making friends among his fellow passengers. 
His wife is a portly old lady, weighing not less than 
three hundred pounds. We have on board several 
clergymen; among them a Catholic bishop on his 
way to Eome, also a noted General, and his wife, 
who are on their way to Italy to spend the coming 

Immediately after crossing the bar at Sandy 
Hook, the steamer commenced rolling and madly 
plunging, upsetting things generally. A heavy 
northeast gale continued two days and nights, dur- 
ing which it was impossible for any of the passen- 
gers to remain on deck. After the third day, it 
cleared beautifully, and the ocean seemed at rest. 

The days passed on much after the fashion of 
the others, until on the afternoon of the eleventh 


day out, land came in sight. How joyfully that cry 
sounded over the ship! Our glasses were brought 
in requisition for a fairer view; and our Captain 
informed us that we were nearing the Highlands of 
Galway, Ireland. The sun was setting in all his 
glory, reflecting a red and purple hue over the sea. 
A lady, standing beside me, appeared transfixed, so 
glorious was the scene. She was probably thinking 
' of the loved parents whom she was about to visit, 
not having seen them for twenty-five years. 

A prayer meeting was called on deck, and all 
joined in singing Old Hundred, in thankfulness for 
our safety. Our old English lady companion was 
also impressed with the thoughts of nearing home, 
for later in the evening, she and her daughter 
were singing very sweetly " Home Sweet Home." 

The next morning we arrived at Queenstown ; 
and after landing passengers and mails for Ireland, 
we steamed up St. George's channel having Wales 
on our right hand, soon passing Holyhead. We 
were awakened very early next morning, and found 
ourselves at Liverpool. Hastening on deck, we 


could see nothing but a vast quantity of masts and 
ships. On our steamer all was confusion, from the 
general preparing to land. We walked down the 
gang-plank one by one, where officers stood ready 
to examine our baggage. This being found all 
right, we were allowed to pass through the great 
iron gateway. Very soon, seated in an English 
cab, we are driven to the Alexandra hotel, where 
we rest awhile after our voyage. 



|HE first thing we notice is the substantial 

[MI manner in which everything is built. 
^^^^ Liverpool is a busy city, and contains 

•^^^niany fine buildings, the most elegant being 
the new Exchange. 

Of course, we must patronize one of those queer 
carriages called ''Hansoms," and drive along the 

Some years ago there was an effort made to intro- 
duce the Hansom cab in New York, and doubtless 
most of the people there have seen them ; but many 
of our readers might like a description. It ia a 
small carriage on two wheels, the driver sitting on 
a high seat behind. The reins pass over the top of 
the carriage and fall down over its front to the 
horses' head. A window closes in front of the pas- 
senger, through which he has a fine view of all that 
is passing in the streets; even though the rain 


should be falling, he feels cozy and well protected 
though his poetic dreams may be disturbed by the 
unobstructed view of the wretched Rosinante which 
too often does the service for the Hansom cabman. 

Thirty miles by rail and we reach Leeds. Here 
we find the most noted woolen manufactories in Eng- 
land. Not stopping long, we continue on to Man- 
chester, a cheerful looking city, where we are 
politely guided through the cotton manufactories. 
The Exchange, during business hours, presents an 
animated scene, which is well worth a visit. 

The Derby chapel in the old Cathedral is inter- 
esting. It was built by an Earl of Derby, and one 
of them is there buried. 

Seated in a comfortable railway carriage, we ar- 
rive, sooner than I expected, at Rowsley station, 
where those wishing to visit Chatsworth Palace 
and Haddon Hall, stop. Here I have my first 
view of an English inn. How often I have 
read of such places, and associated with them 
a bustling landlord, or landlady, stage coaches 
rattling up to the door, and luggage being taken 


in. Well, we did not enter this way, but drove up 
quietly to the quiet old inn. Over the door was the 
date when the house was built, 1652. Above the 
date is the coat of arms of the Duke of Rutland, as 
this was formerly his shooting-box. Our agreeable 
hostess having provided us with a fine team, we 
proceed to Haddon Hall. This huge pile of build- 
ings, massively irregular in architecture, once be- 
longed to the Yernon family, but in consequence 
of the runaway marriage of Dorethea Vernon and 
Sir John Manners, it fell to the Duke of Rutland. 
It is now a romantic old ruin, battered and worn by 
the elements. The whole pile is surrounded with 
fine old trees that spread in every direction, rich 
with associations of past ages, and fresh with the 
most luxuriant growth of nature. 

Within is the banqueting hall, the bed of Queen 
Elizabeth, the state chairs used during the reign of 
Henry the Seventh, and over the fire place in the 
private dining room are the words, "Dread God 
and honor the King." When we were again seated 
in the carriage I felt amply repaid for my wander- 


iiigs througli this ancient hall. It was tlie first cas- 
tellated ruin which I had ever visited. 

Going through a pleasant country, and stopping 
at the little town of Bakewell to purchase pictures, 
we soon entered the grounds of the Duke of Devon- 
shire's palace, said to be the handsomest private 
residence in the world On these grounds is the 
tower where Mary, Queen of Scots, was confined 
thirteen years. In the park adjoining the palace 
are thousands of deer. The conservatories are very 
extensive. Growing in profusion are pine apples, 
bananas, oranges, figs, lemons, and ginger, also many 
exotic plants, and flowers from India, Egypt, and 
South America, among them the marvelous Victoria 
Regia, one of a genus of water plants named after 
the queen. It is a native of S. America. Its leaves 
from three to five feet across, have a rim some 
four or five inches high ; and its white flowers are 
almost three-quarters of a yard in diameter. The 
interior of the palace is certainly beyond descrip- 
tion. Paintings from eminent artists, statuary from 



the most distinguished sculptors of past ages are 
gathered within its walls. 

The Duke owns two other estates in England, be- 
sides a house in London and a large property in Ire- 
land. His income is said to be over five thousand 
dollars a. day ; and yet, while there is such great 
wealth in England, there is also great poverty and 
wretchedness ; within a few miles of these elegant 
mansions, and vast landed estates, are thousands of 
human beings who are living in want and misery. 

From Newstead Abbey, Derby, and Nottingham 
we find ourselves at Windsor Castle, arriving 
about ten o'clock in the morning, in company with 
a lady and gentlemen of the Queen's household., 
who escorted us through the castle, and very kindly 
afforded us an opportunity to see the Queen, also 
Princesses Louise, Beatrice, and Prince Leopold. 
The Queen is quite plain and unpretending in her ap- 
pearance, medium height, with a countenance beam- 
ing with intelligence and love. She was neatly at- 
tired in mourning. The people revere Yictoria, 
but since the death of her husband she has remained 


SO secluded as to givemucli dissatisfaction to the aris- 
tocracy. We feel deeply obliged to our friends for 
tlie pleasure which they have rendered us this day, 
remembering that by their aid we were enabled to 
see England's Queen. Bidding them adieu we enter 
St. George's chapel and attend service. The 
chapel remains the same as when the Prince of 
Wales was married. 

An hour's ride brought us to London, where we 
remained many days visiting the various places of 
note in and around the city. Among them St. 
Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, the Royal 
Exchange, Buckingham Palace, Houses of Parlia- 
ment, Thames Tunnel, Tower of London, and the 
matchless. Sydenham ; also parks and gardens, of 
which there are a great number. 

The Royal Exchange is one of the most interest- 
ing monuments of London. Sir Thomas Gresham, 
financial agent of Queen Elizabeth and of her suc- 
cessor, saw, in his frequent borrowing excursions to 
Antwerp and other cities of the Low Countries, 
then the financial rulers of the world's commerce, 


the importance of freeing England from her depen- 
dence upon these countries. The first exchange 
he built at his own expense and presented it to the 
city of London. That was burned in 1838, and 
the present Exchange, the proud symbol of Eng- 
land's commercial dominance, stands on its site. 

Buckingham Palace, the town residence of the 
Queen, is of little interest in an architectural point 
of view. Windsor Castle and Hampton Court are 
a thousand times more significant ; but the interior 
of Buckingham Palace on a court reception day pre- 
sents one of the grandest exhibitions of social pomp 
in the world. The glitter of diamonds and pre- 
cious stones of all kinds, the display of costly 
fabrics, the beauty of wom^n, the glitter of royal 
decorations upon the breasts of men^ the sheen of 
silk stockings, for gentlemen must all wear these 
or be refused admittance, the gorgeous costumes of 
the attendants, who stand immovable, holding huge 
battle axes, emblems of barbarism — altogether 
form a scene never to be forgotten. 

We attended Mr. Spurgeon's church. He is 


about thirty -seven years of age, short of stature, 
rather thick set, dark hair and eyes, and a very 
pleasant expression. He makes no use of notes, but 
preaches with a captivating eloquence, that is cal- 
culated to do much good. 

The days spent in England have been delightful. 
The people were hospitable and courteous, for 
which we shall always have the kindest recollections 
of merry England. 



•LL ABOARD ! " We and our luggage 
are hurried on a little steamboat ; rain 
is falling, and I am 'glad to descend into 
the ladies' cabin. But alas ! the accom- 
modations are limited, the room is very small and 
close, beds are made on the seats, and some on the 

I was so amused watching the ineffectual efforts 
of the ladies to comfortably arrange themselves for 
the night, that I could not think of sleep. I am 
not surprised that so many passengers ask the ques- 
tion, why the conveniences on the channel steamers 
are so inadequate, considering the vast amount of 
travel between England and France. 

It was a tolerably quiet night crossing the chan- 
nel, and at nine o'clock the next morning we reach 


Dieppe, France. The first thing which attracted 
my attention was the women in white caps, with 
broad frills. Some were riding on donkeys, others 
walking, while their donkeys were loaded with 
vegetables for market. Dieppe is a large city, 
famous among other things for its unrivaled manu- 
factures from ivory. 

In a luxurious French railway carriage whirling 
through the valley of Normandy to Paris, we passed 
some of the most beautiful scenery in France. 
Some parts were a perfect flower garden. There 
were whole fields of the red poppy, which are culti- 
vated for the oil obtained from its seeds. This oil 
is much used by the people for salads, many prefer- 
ing it to the oil of the olive. It is a clear, sweet, 
and nearly odorless oil. Long rows of Lombardy 
j)oplars are planted on either side of every stream 
of water, extending miles in length. The wood is 
used to make charcoal, and by engravers and cabi- 
net makers, while its leaves, either green or dry, are 
readily eaten by sheep and cattle. 

After a delightful ride, we entered the city of 


Paris. Our first business was to install ourselves 
in a good hotel, which was not very difficult, as 
Paris abounds in them. 

From my window I noticed people sitting by lit- 
tle round tables, sipping chocolate and chatting 
away. Presently a baker passed with a large tray 
of bread made in strips two yards in length, piled 
up about four feet — this he carried upon his head. 
Most of the horses that pass have bells jingling 
about their necks. The drivers seem trying to out- 
do each other in cracking their whips. Over the 
smoothly paved streets omnibuses are passing to 
and fro with as many passengers on the top as there 
are inside. Those wishing to ride outside, can pass 
up a little ladder which is attached to the end of the 
stages. Flower girls walk by with beautiful flow- 
ers in their hands, offering them for a few sous. 
The Parisians are lovers of flowers; not only the 
rich but the poor have a universal taste for them. 

The sidewalks are filled with gaily dressed peo- 
ple walking leisurely as though care or business 
never troubled them. 

og . FRANCE. 

I am called from this panoramic view, to visit tlie 
cathedral of Notre-dame. Its history is connected 
with the greatest events of Parisian life. Here the 
coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte and Josephine 
took place. It was an occasion of great splendor, 
the Pope coming from Home to crown them. Louis 
Napoleon and Eugenie were here married. It is 
one of the grandest cathedrals of Europe and dates 
from 1163, when the first stone was laid by Pope 
Alexander III. 

The church of the Madeleine stands next in im- 
portance, built after the style of the Parthenon at 
Athens, intended by Napoleon to represent the tem- 
ple of fame, afterwards completed by Louis Philippe. 
This church has a most grand appearance. It is 
approached at either end by a flight of twenty-eight 
steps, and the whole building is surrounded by a 
colonnade of fifty-two corinthian pillars each forty- 
nine feet high. 

In the morning we take a carriage for a drive in 
the Bois de Boulogne, passing up the Champs Ely- 
s^es to the Arc de Triomphe which was commenced 


by Napoleon first in the year 1806. Witliin tlie 
arcli are recorded all his victories and the names of 
his generals. We ascended two hundred and eighty 
steps to the summit; here we remained some time 
enjoying what is considered to be the grandest 
view of Paris, the whole city lying like a map 
before us. 

Leaving the Arc and riding through the avenue 
De r Imperatrice we enter the Bois de Boulogne, the 
Parisians favorite park and fashionable drive of the 
heaii monde. Late in the afternoon we see the 
ladies and gentlemen driving around in splendid 
equipages. The wood is charming ; there are broad 
roads for carriages, shaded avenues for equestriai s, 
and lakes with boats upon them. In some of these 
lakes are little islands on which are beautiful flow- 
ers and pleasure houses where delicate refreshments 
can be obtained. 

Night coming on we return to our hotel in time 
for the table cTliote, 




|HIS has been a briglit July day, and we 
have improved it by visiting the tomb of 
Napoleon. Passing up several marble steps 
we enter a beautiful edifice, called the 
Domes des Invalides ; under the dome rest the re- 
mains of Napoleon first, who was brought here from 
the island of St. Helena, in the year 1840, as in his 
will he requested that his ashes might repose on 
the banks of the Seine, in the midst of the French 
people whom he had ever loved. 

The tomb is of Porphyry, weighing over one hun- 
dred and thirty thousand pounds. Around the 
tomb are twelve magnificent statues. Near the 
crypt is a statue of the Emperor. The cost of the 
^entire building was between two and three million 



dollars. The people are constantly coming and 
going, visiting this illustrious shrine. 

Near to this stands the Hotel des Invalides, 
founded by Louis Fourteenth, as. a home for dis- 
abled soldiers. We saw the old veterans walking 
and sitting around, apparently well provided for. 
They have little gardens for tiieir out of door amuse- 
ment, and some of these are kept with great neat- 
ness and taste. Others look much neglected. 
Wine is daily furnished to all the veterans, as are 
also tobacco and snuff for those who use them. 

In the top story of the building are models of all 
the fortified cities of France, made by the inmates, 
in plaster and wood. 

Wending our way to the Rue de Rivoli, one of 
the busy streets of the city, we are soon at the 
Place YendOme. In the center stands the Column 
Yend6me, erected by Napoleon First to commemor- 
ate his German campaign in 1805. It is formed of 
twelve hundred captured cannon, and the shaft is 
surmounted by his statue. 

In the Place Royale, is the home of Victor Hugo, 


and near it that of Richelieu, both ancient looking 

Near by is the Place de la Bastile, "where stood 
the castle in which Marie Antoinette was imprison- 
ed. It was one of the most famous dungeons in the 
world. In the revolution of '98 the enraged pop- 
ulace razed it to the ground. 

The Palais Royal is the residence of Prince Na- 
poleon, Princess Clotilde, his wife, and Prince 
Jerome. In the garden, which is surrounded with 
elegant jewelry shops, the lower story of the quad- 
rangular palace being rented for this purpose, we 
seated ourselves beside the fountain to listen to a 
band of music which plays every afternoon at four 
o'clock. Here crowds of people congregate. I 
often remark they seem to have nothing to do but 
to enjoy themselves and be happy ; this is the way 
it appeared to me all the time in Paris. Their Sun- 
days are not regarded as in America. It is more of 
a holiday with them, and many of the stores are 
open, while crowds of workmen with their wives 
and children seek the fresh air and green fields of 


Saint Cloud, Fontainebleau, or otlier places, in the 
railway trains leaving Paris at almost all hours. 

The finest stores are on the Boulevards, Rue de 
la Paix, and the Rue de Rivoli, where are to be 
found the most elegant goods of all description. 
The sidewalk of the latter is covered by the build- 
ings, forming a long arcade. 

The Louvre is very extensive, and requires several 
visits. The museum of antiquities is on the lower 
floor. In the Imperial museum are to be seen Na- 
23oleon's sword, camp-bed, writing desk, several 
coats pierced with bullets, his last used gloves, 
and his state coronation chair, also relics of Maria 
Antoinette, the jewels of Maria Louisa, and other 
interesting objects. 

Here are galleries after galleries of paintings. In 
one no pictures are received excepting those whose 
masters are dead. We Cjuickly sought out Murillo's 
"Immaculate Conception," which is considered the 
most valuable of the collection, and by some the 
finest picture in the world. 

Connected with the Louvre are the Tuileries, the 


citj residence of Napoleon and Eugenie. The in- 
terior is fitted up in the most opulent and costly 
style. The garden of the palace is divided from 
the Rue Rivoli by a high railing ornamented with 
marble urns filled with flowers. 

The grounds are exquisitely laid out, abounding 
with statuary and fountains. They embrace an area 
of fifty acres, and are thronged with people from 
morning till night on all fair days. There you see 
the children of the rich from all countries dressed 
in elegant attire pursuing their juvenile sports. 
The little sparrows are so tame in these gardens 
that they often take crumbs from your hand. 

The word Tuileries is from tuile, a tile, so named it 
is said because the site was once occupied by a manu- 
factory of tiles of which the roofs in France are quite 
generally covered. From a window in the centre 
of the palace of the Tuileries you have a view of 
which some one says " It is the finest artificial vista 
in the world. There is a grandeur in the scene 
from the tops of high mountains, in a limitless ex- 
panse of ocean, but standing here and looking up 


across tlie fountains and the flowers of tlie Tuileries 
gardens, on through the beautiful opening in the 
Chestnut woods to the grand Place de la Concorde 
with its costly fountains and its Egyptian obelisk, 
on still through the Champs Elysees up through the 
Arc de Triomphe where the eye fails and the Bois 
de Boulogne which lies beyond is scarcely percep 
tible, we are compelled to say that we believe there 
is nothing to rival it in the whole world. It is not 
only grand, but it charms us with the conviction 
that if nature is beautiful, nature improved by art is 
infinitely lovely, because it always excites a higher 
emotion than that of mere gaping wonder. It 
challenges our admiration for the achievements of 
human industry and increases our love for human- 

This is a great day in Paris, Napoleon is to review 
his army ; early in the morning crowds are wending 
their way to the Champs Elysees, and mingling with 
the throng we succeeded in obtaining a favorable 
position from a window of a cafe, directly opposite 
the Palace of Industry, where the Empress Eu- 


genie was seated. One by one the state carriages 
began to arrive filled with ladies who took seats in 
the windows of the palace. Ere long, amid the 
shouts and cheers of the populace, and the music of 
many bands, surrounded by a body guard of nearly 
two hundred men, dressed in gorgeous uniforms, Na- 
poleon came riding up the grand avenue, and took 
his position in front of the Palace of Industry. He 
wore a look of self-possession, which impressed the 
beholder. His dress consisted of a gilt helmet with 
white ostrich plumes, a light military coat, and over 
the shoulder passed a broad green ribbon. His 
pants were cf red velvet, with a black stripe at the 
•sides. Seated upon a gilt saddle, and bestriding a 
handsome bay horse, he seemed undisturbed- by the 
scene around him. The firing of cannon announced 
the approach of the army marching twenty-eight 
abreast, in close order. They were two hours and 
fifteen minutes passing, presenting a splendid mili- 
tary spectacle. 

Alas, for Napoleon! In a few short days how 
cha;nged the scene. War with its ruthless hand has 


torn the crown from thy brow and destroyed thy 
dreams of glory forever. 

Napoleon has done much for France, m beautify- 
ing its cities and increasing the prosperity of its 
people, but they do not seem permanently united, 
or long satisfied with their rulers. 

The history of France has been one of vicissi- 

One of the most delighful days of our sojourn in 
France was that passed at Versailles, eleven miles 
from Paris. Here is the imposing palace of Ver- 
sailles, so famous in history. The cost of the palace 
and grounds of Versailles has been estimated at one 
billion of francs, or two hundred millions of dollars. 
The w^er for its elaborate fountains is supplied 
from the Seine by forcing pumps, worked by steam, 
and the cost of working the fountains for a single 
hour is something enormous. They are played on 
the first Sunday of every month. The extensive 
parks, lawns, terraces and gardens, evergreen trees 
made to grow in quaint abnormal shapes, statues, 
vases, render the belongings of the palace alone 


well wortli a visit to the city of Yersailles. The 
Petit Trianon, a royal mansion built by Louis XV., 
for Madame du Barry, was the favorite residence of 
the unhappy Marie Antoinette, queen of Louis,' 
XI Y. This mansion, and also the Grand Trianon 
are within the grounds of the palace. 

Fontainebleau is another famous palace about 
thirty miles from Paris. It is a magnificent pile 
and has been the country residence of the court at 
different times. Here Napoleon in 1814 bade fare- 
well to the famous " old guard." One of the Popes 
was confined here, about that time, for a year and a 
half The palace is rich in paintings by Del Sarto, 
Da Yinci, Benvenuto, Cellini, and others, but many 
of their works are falling to decay. The forest of 
Fontainebleau contains over 34,000 acres and is 
perhaps the finest in France. The illustration rep- 
resents one of its magnificent, shaded avenues be- 
side the largest of its beautiful lakes. 

Saint Cloud is another of the famous palaces of 
France. The village of Saint Cloud, containing 
somethino^ over three thousand inhabitants, is about 


five miles west of Paris. In 1782 Louis XVI. pur- 
chased it for Marie Antoinette, and since then it has 
been a favorite residence of the royal family, espe- 
cially with the two Napoleons. On Sundays, at least, 
and on other days for ought that I know to the con- 
trary, the populace are permitted to roam all over the 
beautiful grounds of Saint Cloud, and hundreds of 
■their children may be seen sporting or rolling upon 
its thick green grass, or wandering around its cool 
lakes. When there are such luxuries within the 
reach of the poor workmen, is it a wonder that he 
takes his wife and children to enjoy them ' even on 
Sunday, the only day on which he can leave his 
workshop ? 



T. CLOUD, Fontainebleau, and many otlier 
^?^% interesting places, in and around Paris, and 
€ the delightful day spent at Versailles, finish 
our sight-seeing at Paris, and we must leave 
for other scenes of interest. 

The next morning we proceed to the gare^ or 
railway station, by seven o'clock to take the cars for 
Basle, Switzerland. Riding all day, a distance 
of three hundred and twenty-five miles, going 
through the Champagne districts of France, by 
dark we reach Basle, and putting up at the hotel 
de la Couronne we partake of a good sapper and 
retire to our room fatigued after the long ride of 
the day. 

The next morning much refreshed we start out 
to explore the place. 


Basle is situated on both sides of the river Ehine, 
and is a decidedly ancient looking city. The people 
speak German. A new Protestant church has recent- 
ly been erected at great expense, the money havino- 
been left for that purpose by a rich merchant of 

We leave by rail for Lucerne. The scenery 
along the route is characteristic of the country. 
Here the picturesque Swiss cottage is seen, the roof 
so far overhanging the house as to afford a perfect 
protection to its sides, under this projection we 
frecpaently see suspended herbs and vegetables. 

Every canton has a different style of cottage, and 
all are curious objects to the traveler. 

Arriving at Lucerne we take rooms at Schwanen 
Hotel. This place is the capital of the canton, and 
is very prettily situated at the head of the lake of 
Lucerne, the river Reuss dividing it into two parts. 
The peasantry are remarkable for their costume. 
The women, wearing a short skirt, with white waist, 
and very full sleeves. Over the waist is a black 
bodice with shoulder straps. The old women wear 


long braids of hair hanging down tlieir backs, are 
usually bare headed, sometimes with a handkerchief 
tied over the head, or a very singular looking hat 
with the front turned up. 

The people seem to be industrious and happy. 
The prominent objects of interest are the three 
bridges over the river Reuss, decorated with strange 
looking pictures, representing different phases in 
life, and the " Wounded Lion " from a model by 
Thorwaldsen: This is a monument erected in mem- 
ory of the Swiss guards, who fell at Paris in 1792. 
A remarkable feature is the beautiful spring of 
clear water at the foot of the monument. Below 
its surface you see a perfect reflection of the figure 
above, which is carved out of the side of a high 

We went out sailing on the lake. It was calm 
and pleasant, not a ripple stirring its surface. Near 
a small island, we came to a large bed of pond lil- 
ies, growing in profusion. They were the largest 
and loveliest I ever saw. We gathered our arms 
full, and on the way back suddenly a shower came 


on, obliging us to take shelter under an old boat 
shed ; but we were quite thankful to get even that, 
as the rain fell in torrents. Near by was a poor 
Swiss cottage from which the children would come 
running out to peep at us, and then dart back into 
the cottage to tell of the strangers. The shower 
soon over, we sailed back with our boat load of 
lilies. Nearing the town the sound of the bells 
came softly over the lake, it being the custom to 
ring the chimes every hour. With good appetite 
we enjoyed an excellent dinner, and afterward took 
our seats upon the balcony of the hotel. The view 
is magnificent. On the right stands Mount Pilatus ; 
opposite across the lake Mount Rigi, their tops cov- 
ered with snow. Far in the distance, peak after 
peak of the Alps can be seen, with the everlasting 
glaciers resting between them. The sun sinking in 
the west, casts its departing rays upon the Alpine 
snow and ice, and a bright rainbow appeared, only 
to vanish and give place to another; and as the light 
faded slowly away, we were lost in admiration. 
Our thoughts went out in praise to the great Artist 


who is able to paint sucli a glorious panorama. 
Gradually the scene changed and the full moon 
came up over Mount Rigi, casting her silvery light 
upon the placid waters of the lake. A boat shoots 
out, and takes its place about one quarter of a mile 
from the shore. A band of musicians is on board 
and there they remain discoursing sweet music, un- 
til far into^the hours of night. This afternoon and 
evening in Switzerland will never be effaced from 
my mind. 



T four o'clock in the morning we are called 

b "to take Si gong through the lake." A 

^^.'^M small narrow steamer is ready, and in a few 

minutes a little company of travelers" are 

gathered on deck and the bow is pointed toward 

the other end of the lake. The first stopping place 

was Weggis, where quite a number disembark to 

ascend the Rigi. They were well prepared with 

broad-brimmed straw hats, coarse heavy shoes, with 

sharp nails in the soles, and the alpenstock in their 

hands. I noticed written on a staff belonging to 

one of the gentlemen, the names of the different 

mountains that he had ascended, among them were 

Mounts Blanc and Vesuvius. 

The air is pure and bracing, and the mountains 


become more lofty and grand as we speed along 
the clear waters. We cannot think of going below 
to our breakfast, as we should miss the changing 
scenery. A little table is set upon the deck, over 
which the Swiss maid spreads a white cloth and on 
it places delicious honey, for which Switzerland is 
noted ; bread, cheese, eggs, and a good cup of coffee 
complete the meal. 

High up the mountain sides could be heard the 
tinkling of bells where the herds were feeding, and 
perched on the sides almost to the very edge of 
the snow, were to be seen the little summer huts 
of the shepherds. As the season advances and the 
snow melts, they drive their flocks higher and 
higher, coming down at the earliest approach of au- 
tumn, bringing their summer manufacture of butter 
and cheese. 

The lake of Lucerne presents to the traveler the 
most sublime scenery in Switzerland. The moun- 
tains reaching to the clouds on either side, their 
tops white with snow, present a scene of wild grand- 
eur impossible to describe. 


This is the land of William Tell, all the surround- 
ings are immortalized with his fame. We are point- 
ed out the spot where he leaped ashore and escaped 
from Gesler. A chapel to mark the place has been 
erected, and once a year mass is celebrated here, 
whither the people repair in boats decorated with 

The Swiss believe in William Tell, and venerate 
his name. The masses would not probably receive 
with any complacency the reduction of their favor- 
ite hero to a mythical legend ; and yet if vv^e believe 
such scholars as Delapierre, Cox, and others, the 
first mention of the name occurs some four hundred 
years before the pretended historical William Tell 
came upon the scene. It is further significant, to 
say the least, that there is, in history, no mention of 
the tyrant Gesler. 

Arriving at Fluelen, a town situated at the end 
of the lake, we find the diligence in which we had 
engaged passage before leaving Lucerne, all in read- 
iness to set out on the journey over the St. Gothard, 
one of the most awe-inspiring of the Alpine passes. 


The diligence is a clumsy looking vehicle with 
three apartments. Each passenger takes the seat 
assigned him by the number on his ticket. Drawn 
by four horses, we commenced the mountain ascent, 
passing, after a short distance, the statue commemo- 
rating the place where '' Tell " shot the apple from 
his son's head. 

The road was very good and quite smooth. Our 
traveling companions in the stage were an English 
lady and her husband, both quite sociable and divert- 
ing. All day long we were winding up the moun- 
tain, the view becoming more wild and rugged. 
V^e halted at the little town of Andermatt, and soon 
after setting out again, we passed the bridge under 
which the Eeuss jolunges and roars in an awful man- 
ner. This bridge was the scene of a terrible strug- 
gle between the French and Austrians in the year 

Often times the road would lie along the very 
edge of a precipice, down which no one could 
scarcely dare to look. On the opposite side of the 
chasm, streams of water came leaping over the sides 


of the cliffs, and fjilling through the air thousands 
of feet. Numbers of these cascades are to be seen. 
They are caused by the melting of the glaciers. 

The poor horses strained every nerve as they en- 
deavored to draw the heavy carriage up the zig-zag 
course. Away down in the valleys we saw flocks 
of sheep, chamois and goats feeding. 

The Alpine flora are exquisite. Several times 
during the day, the gentlemen would jump out of 
the diligence while in motion, and gather beautiful 
bouquets of flowers delicate in odor and form and 
brilliant in hue, which had grown and blossomed 
among the snows. As the afternoon wore on we 
rapidly neared the top. The air became piercing 
cold, snow and ice all around, bringing into requisi- 
tion all our extra clothing. As the way became 
more "steep, the number of horses were increased 
until twelve powerful ones were pulling with all their 
might. Two o'clock, three o'clock, four o'clock, 
and we stand on the top of St. Gothard, almost 
eleven thousand feet high, with the clouds rolling 
kr beneath our feet. 



|HILE the driver is changing horses, an 
opjDortunity is afforded us for rest and re- 
<p freshment, and Tre have ample time to ex- 
amine the celebrated Hospice of St. 
Gothard- There are several of these hospices built 
on the Alpine passes, to provide for travelers. They 
ptre inhabited by monks, who keep dogs, trained to 
rescue lost wayfarers who often miss their way 
in the blinding storms which frequently occur. 
Within ten miles of where we are, four rivers rise, 
the Reuss, Rhone, Rhine, and the Ticino. 

The view is now truly sublime. As far as our 
sight can penetrate from the lofty point on which 
we stand, hundreds of snow capped peaks are seen 
piercing the deep blue sky. East and west extend 
the Alps in the form of a great crescent, bounding 


the north of Italy. Here is the home of the glacier, 
and the terrible avalanche. How insignificant the 
works of man appear compared to the awful gran- 
deur of this scene ! 

The call of the driver announced " all ready," and 
bidding the old monks a hasty good bye, we hur- 
ried into the diligence. There were only two horses 
now attached. The driver with his feet firm upon 
the breaks, gave his whip a loud crack, the horses 
started on a gallop and the descent commenced. 
This is the most fearful part of the ride. The road 
often turning abruptly, you have the sensation that 
you are going over the edge of the precipice, thou- 
sands of feet into the valley below. Glancing 
down the head.-- becomes dizzy, and we turn away 
with a fevereish - and helpless sensation, trusting to 
the driver, and the safety of the breaks. - Passing a 
number of small villages, about eleven o'clock at 
night we reach the town of Bellinzona. Here a 
crowd collected around the diligence to hear what 
news there was, for the arrival of the stage appear- 


ed quite an event to them. The people looked dif- 
ferently from any which we had seen, more like Ital- 

Our English friends unexpectedly concluded to 
remain in Bellinzona rather than undergo the mid- 
night ride, notwithstanding the fact that there was 
no room for them in the inn. 

Just before starting two men dressed in Italian cos- 
tume entered the stage and took seats opposite. One 
of them was armed with a rifle and a sword. These 
were to be the only passengers beside ourselves. 

For two weary hours we were winding up another 
chain of the Alps, when suddenly a terrible thunder- 
storm broke upon us, peal after peal crashed through 
the mountains, echoing from crag to crag, until the 
very earth trembled. As the continual lightning 
flashes illuminated the midnight darkness, the two 
passengers could be seen, one apparently watching 
us, while the other was feigning sleep. A feeling 
of fear took possession of me, and I prayed for the 
light of day, and deliverance from this lonely ride. 
The hours seemed days. At three o'clock the storm 
passed away, ar.d the moon came out, somewhat dis- 


pelling the gloom. We were now riding along by 
lake Lugano where another passenger was added. 
We were glad for any relief from the loneliness of 
our situation. As the morning approached the air 
began to feel more sultry, and as we descended 
upon the plains of Italy, daylight revealed to us 
that we were passing through Italian villages. 
Beggars came running after us, some of them rol- 
ling like a hoop along the road, expecting a few 
pennies to be tossed out to them. After a long de- 
lay at the custom house, our baggage being closely 
examined, we were allowed to proceed. Passing a 
few more towns, about nine o'clock we drive into 
Como. The time from the Lake of Lucerne, was 
twenty-six hours, during which time there had been 
required six drivers and forty-eight horses to our 



(^^ WAS glad enough to get out of tlie old dili- 
gence, and know that I was in classic Italy. 
^&^ We were landed in the middle of the street, 
with our baggage set beside us. Presently 
we saw running toward us a miserable looking old 
man, who looked at us, said something, and pointed 
to the baggage. We perfectly understood his ges 
ures. He left us but returned quickly with a hand 
cart, into which he threw the trunks and started off, 
while we followed bringing up in front of the hotel 
De r Ange. A very large room was assigned us, 
with a marble floor and frescoed ceiling. The win- 
dows opening on a stone balcony, commanded a 
fine view of the lake, so romantically associated 
with Bulwer's play, TJie Lady of Lyons. 

After a visit to the Cathedral, and Broletto, the 

ITALY. 69 

next clay we take the steamer tlirougli the lake of 
Como to Lecco. The view is varied and enchanting. 
Among the most charming villas to be seen, is the 
'•'• Yilla d'Este " once the residence of Queen Caro- 
line of England, also "Yilla Montebello " where Na- 
poleon and Josephine resided after the fall of Yen- 
ice. Caroline, queen of George lY., it will be re- 
membered, was offered a pension of fifty thousand 
pounds on condition that she would never return to 
England. She rejected the offer with contempt 
and arriving in England in the summer of 1820, 
she was received by the people, who never with- 
drew their allegiance to her, with acclamations of 
joy. A charge of unfliithfulness was brought against 
her, which though never substantiated as a fact, 
created much scandal, and the following year when 
George the Fourth was crowned in Westminster 
Abbey the doors were closed against her. The peo- 
pie did not perhaps believe her entirely guiltless, but 
they would not place reliance upon any charge 
emanating from a husband who had treated her with 
revolting cruelty. 

70 ITALY. 

I had often desired to see this noted lake, but it 
far surpassed in beauty my expectations, and yet 
while its shores are lined with orange and citron 
groves, its lovely villas, its magnificent situation 
among the Alps, it lacks one element of beauty, the 
three hundred and sixty -five lovely islands of our 
own bewitching Lake George. 

The steamer reaching Lecco about two o'clock in 
the afternoon, all the passengers were compelled to 
march into a fumigating room, where dishes were 
placed on the floor, filled with chlorid of lime, 
also something in a vial to inhale. After remaining 
in this room until we were almost suffocated with 
the dense smoke of something burning, we were 
allowed to leave. The weather was very warm and 
this fumigating was a sanitary measure to prevent 
any of the passengers from bringing infection into 
the city. Lecco is a small place not affording much 
to detain the traveler, so we proceed to Bergamo, 
and from there to Yerona, arriving at midnight. The 
road leading to the city presented a fine appearance 

ITALY. 72 

in the bright moonlight being broad and well shaded 
with trees. 

The gates of the city of Yerona we found closed ; 
but soon an officer came, and after scrutinizing us, 
opened them and we were driven to the hotel 
Tour De Londres. 

Yerona is an interesting city, built on both sides of 
the river Adige, which is crossed by four stone 
bridges. Its wonderful fortifications must have cost 
as much money as it required to build the city itself 

It is noted for being the birth-place of Paolo 
Yeronese, or '•'- 11 pittor feltce^'^ the happy painter. 

Bright and early we were off with our cicerone, 
visiting churches and cathedrals. Going through 
a convent, then across a garden having on one 
side a high stone wall, we came to a small old 
building. In this our guide naively pointed out 
with much satisfaction " La tomha di cjieidetta la 
sfortmiatar the tomb of Juliet, the unfortunate. 
It is made of marble and looks very ancient. 

The Amphitheatre is one of the most extraordi- 
nary pieces of Roman architecture in existence. 

72 ITALY. 

It is supposed to have been erected about the time 
of Titus. The outside is in ruins while the inside is 
almost as perfect as when built. There are seats for 
twenty-five thousand persons, all made of hewn 
stone, and the places where the wild beasts were 
confined, and led in and out, are plainly to be seen. 
We ascended and walked along the great stone seats, 
Plants and weeds had sprung up and were grow- 
ing plenteously among the crevices. 

From '' Yerona the Worthy " we continued our 
journey through a fine country. The fields were 
covered with wild flowers, and the grape vines run- 
ning up the trees and hanging from the branches 
in graceful festoons formed a characteristic part of 
the scenery. 

Going by many Italian villages and cities we ap- 
proached a large level tract of country, on which 
tall grass was the only thing growing. Evidently we 
were nearing the shore ; and in a short time we de- 
scried, far off upon the water, Yenice, the " City of 
the Sea." 



JI^II^T noon we arrived at Yenice where again we 
^^4 ^^^^ subjected to the process of fumigation, 
oif^ with which we have now become accustom. 

"% ed. Afterward we were detained at the 
custom house, to undergo a rigid examination of 
our passports and baggage. It is both annojdng 
and amusing, to see how the bags and trunks get 
ransacked and tumbled, many of them having been 
packed with care. The officers being satisfied, we 
were permitted to depart. Stepping out on a plat- 
form in front of the custom house we are greeted by 
a confusion of voices calling " Gondola signoi^e f " 
" Gondola signore f " and in a few minutes we are 
gliding along the grand canal. How strange the 
scene! No rumbling of carriages or stages, no 
shouting of horsemen, all is silent, yet thousands in 


these gondolas are passing to and fro continually. 
Approaching the " Grand hotel de la Yille " and 
entering a vestibule with flowers in large vases, and 
trees growing on either side, we are shown up a 
flight of broad marble steps, to a room with velvet 
and rosewood furniture^ and oriental decorations. 
This is called the Turkish room, and opens into a 
museum containing many curiosities, also great gilt 
chairs, reminding me of those in the "Houses of 

Pleasant has been the time devoted to Venice ; it 
has passed away like a dream. Days were spent, 
sailing in gondolas in the water streets, also explor- 
ing palaces, churches, galleries, and dungeons. If 
one wishes to step out of the hotel, he must call a. 
gondolier. Some of the gondolas are very elegant, 
especially those which are owned by the wealthy 
Venetians. In the days of Venice's greatness they 
were so extravagantly decorated that the govern- 
ment issued an order for them to be painted black 
only, and the custom remains to the present day. 
The only ornament is a broad piece of steel fasten- 


ed to the prow, polished bright and glistening in 
the sunlight. 

" Didst ever see a gondola ? for fear 

You should not, I'll describe it you exactly : 

' Tis a long covered boat, that's common here, 

Curved at the prow, built lightly but compactly, 

Rowed by two rowers, each called a gondolier. . 

It glides along the water, looking blackly, 

Just like a coffin clapped in a canoe, 

Where none can ma^e out what you say or do. 

And up and down the long canals they go, 

And under the Rialto shoot away. 

By night and day, all paces, swift or slow ; 

And round the theatres, a sable throng, 

They wait in their dusk livery of woe ; 

But not to them do woeful things belong, 

For sometimes they contain a deal of fun. 

Like mourning coaches when the funeral's done." 

At the cathedral of San Marco high mass was 
celebrated during our sojourn in Yenice. The 
church was thronged in every part ; veiled nuns 
were marching up and down the aisles, bearing 
lighted candle^, while the atmosphere was filled 


with tlie perfume of burning incense. Priests 
dressed in gorgeous robes, performed tlie service 
before tlie higli altar. Suddenly a deep silence 
prevailed, out of whicti a solitary, mournful, yet 
sweet voice, was heard singing, far up amid the 
arches of the cathedral. Soon another was added, 
the music gradually became more distinct, as other 
voices mingled, until nearly three hundred singers 
accompanied by the organ, and a full band of 
music, swelled the grand chorus, making the service 
sublime and impressive beyond description. 

The Piazza San Marco is the largest open square 
in Venice, and there every evening a fine band of 
music plays, while around innumerable little tables 
are seated the Venetians, enjoying wine and ices, 
while promenaders pass and repass unceasingly. 

One side of the Piazza is bounded by the palace 
of the Doges. In the great council hall is Tintoret- 
to's " Paradise," next to the largest painting on 
canvas in the world, being over eighty feet in 
width, by thirty-five in height. This room also 
contains the portraits of all the Doges of Venice, ex- 


cepting one. In another room is the " Last Judg- 
ment " of Pahna the Yomiger, a magnificent work 
of art. The palace is filled with paintings of Titian 
and Tintoretto, who were both born in Yenice. 

Leading from the palace to the prison, over the 
canal, is the terrible "Bridge of Sighs." I shud- 
dered as I walked across, and saw the little window 
through which many a victim had taken his last 
look of the light of day. 

By the assistance of our cicerone and lighted 
lamps, we proceeded through a dark passage, to the 
dungeons below ; they were small and dismal. If 
they could speak, what tales of horror would they 
tell of the tyranny of the secret council of Venice. 

The Campanile, or bell-tower, the arsenal, church 
of Santa Maria della Salute, Santa Maria dei Frari, 
containing the remains of Titian and Canova, the 
celebrated bronze horses, brought from Alexandria 
to Rome, from Rome to Constantinople, thence to 
Venice, from there to Paris, and after the downfall 
of Napoleon, coTried back to San Marco, are 
among the wonders of Venice. 


Every pleasant afternoon can be seen the upper 
classes, attired as for a festive occasion, gliding 
along in tlieir gondolas up and down the grand 
canal. The social position of the occupant is deter- 
mined by the dress of the gondolier. 

Standing upon the balcony of our hotel one after- 
noon, the solemn strains of a funeral dirge were 
heard coming across the water. In a little square 
opposite was a funeral procession, headed by priests, 
marching down to the gondola. They approached the 
water's edge and deposited the corpse in a gondola, 
which was prepared for the occasion. It moved 
away followed by several more carrying the mourn- 

As soon as the funeral cortege sailed under the 
Rialto and turned out of sight the band began to 
play the most lively airs, and the people went on 
laughing and talking merrily as if nothing had hap- 
pened, or asif quickly trying to drown the thoughts 
of death. The procession moved to the cemetery 
which is on the island of Murano. Here all are 
buried, the rich and poor, nobles and beggars lying 
peacefully together. 


Our last evening was spent sailing througli the 
different streets and out on the lagoon. We passed 
several gondolas with hand organs in them, playing 
very prettily. The scene at night with hundreds of 
lights sparkling upon the water, and the gondoliers 
shouting to one another, presents a novel and en- 
livening spectacle. 



'ORNING has come, and we must bid good 
bye to Venice. Taking tlie early train 
% for Milan, we journey through northern 
Italy, a very fertile country, well watered 
with streams from the Alps. Quantities of mulberry 
plantations are observed along the route, some of 
the trees entirely divested of their leaves, which 
have been picked to feed the silk worms. We pass 
many Italian cities, towns, and villages with their 
lovely habitations. Lake di Garda, the largest of 
the Italian lakes, 213 feet above the sea, and famous 
for its sardines ; Solferino, where the allied French 
and Sardinians fought the Austrians under Francis 
Joseph in 1859, and gained a victory after sixteen 
hours of terrible fighting. The French forces were 
led by Napoleon III., and the Italians by Victor 


Emanuel. At Brescia we saw on one of the streets 
hU tlie fronts of the buildmgs covered with frescoes, 
presenting a very quaint appearance. 

Here we came across an elderly gentleman with 
a multitude of bags and bundles, who was returning 
to America from Jaffa, having been there to inves- 
tigate the condition of the colony. He was jovial 
and agreeable, rendering the remainder of our ride 
quite animated. It afforded a pleasure to meet one 
that we could converse with freely in our own lan- 

At the hotel San Marco in Milan, we meet a min- 
ister from Massachusetts who had been traveling in 
Italy over a year for his health. He very kindly 
sejved us as a valuable guide through Milan. 

This is a clean, well regulated city, containing 
considerable wealth, and is much visited by Amer- 
icans. The houses are large and many of them are 
built of light marble. A wall surrounds the city, 
in which there are ten massive gates. 

The Duomo, or Cathedral of Milan, called the 
eighth wonder of the world, with its countless pin- 


nacles, is an imposing structure. They led us up 
nearly two hundred steps to the roof, through the 
chapels and high arches of the interior and 
into the subterranean passages underneath, but as 
this amazing work of art has been so often and 
graphically described by other writers, I will forego 
any further description of it. 

On the wall of the old convent adjoining the 
church of Santa Maria delle Grazie is Leonardo Da 
Yinci's fresco painting of the "Last Supper," paint- 
ed there by him in the year 1493. He was engaged 
upon it nearly sixteen years. This painting, to 
which so many pilgrims have come, is fast going to 
decay and in a few years will be obliterated. Da 
Yinci was so fond of trying experiments in the 
compounding of his colors, that in truth it may be 
said that his " Last Supper" is slowly eating itself up. 

It not being the season of opera in Milan, we ob- 
tained permission to visit II Teatro" La Scala, and 
had it lighted for our benefit. It contains six tiers 
of boxes hung with crimson and gilt drapery, each 
one will accommodate from twenty to twenty-five 


persons. In the rear of eacli box are rooms for the toi- 
let and attendants. The royal box is situated over 
the entrance opposite the stage, and is decorated in 
an elaborate style. La Scala is often called the larg- 
est theater in the world, but it accommodates one 
thousand less than the Bolshoi of St. Petersburg, 
and seven hundred less than the Academy of Music 
in Xew York. 

Driving on the Corso we meet many handsome 
equipages in which are seated the gaily dressed 
Milanese ladies. The peculiarity of their attire is 
a black lace veil, worn upon the head and falling 
on the shoulders. There are many rich palaces in 
the city. In one is a fine painting of the marriage 
of Napoleon and Maria Louisa. 

From "Milan the Great" to Genoa we have our 
first view of the blue waters of the Mediterranean, 
on which we expect to spend much time during the 

Genoa " La Superha,'' the proud, is beautifully sit- 
uated on the shore of the Mediterranean ; but like 
most of the Italian cities it has an old, worn-out ap- 


pearance. Its streets are very narrow, most of them 
'being only a few feet wide, and tlie buildings so high 
that the sunlight scarcely ever reaches the pavement. 
It is with difficulty we make our way through the 
narrow alleys crowded with peddlers, friars, monks, 
beggars and donkeys, to the promenade where the 
best society of the city is seen. 

We meet many of the Genoese ladies with the 
mazzro or head covering of thin white muslin 
thrown over the head and presenting quite a pic- 
turesque effect. It is hard to decide which is the 
most becoming, the black veil of Milan or the white 
veil of Genoa. 

The city abounds in palaces. One of the most 
celebrated is the Palazzo Boria^ so long the residence 
of the Doria family, one of the most aristocratic in 
Italy. Among the churches is the cathedral of San 
Lorenzo, built over six hundred years ago of white 
and black marble. After inspecting the statue of 
Columbus, the old Roman wall, and making some 
purchases at the filigree jewelry stores, we take the 
steamer for Leghorn. 



>T Leghorn we became acquainted with the 
^,§^jb Rev. Mr. Langdon, who was sent from the 
Q\\(M, United States as a missionary to Italy. He 
made a statement about the religious condi- 
tion of the Italian people which I will repeat. "There 
is," he said, "a powerful influence at work to dethrone 
the Pope, and while Victor Emanuel and Garibaldi 
take no active part at present, yet they are in sym- 
pathy with the movement" 

This is a great day in the city, the first iron clad 
vessel ever built by the Italian government is 
to be launched. We have a fine view from the win- 
dows of the ofiice of the American consul, who is 
very kind in endeavoring to aid us in every way he 

The streets, tops of houses, and every available 


place are crowded with people to witness the launch. 
At a given signal the " Gonte Verde'^ glides grace- 
fully from her stocks into the water amid the cheer- 
ing of the people, who were out for a holiday. The' 
women of the poorest class wear handkerchiefs tied 
on their heads; those in medium circumstances 
wear a strip of white lace fastened under the chin ; 
only the wealthy ladies wear bonnets. 

Leghorn or Livorno, as the Italians call it, is the 
summer resort of the wealth and fashion of Rome 
and Florence. The air is pure, without extreme 
heat or cold, owing to the sea breeze which is almost 

Near the quay is a bronze statue to commemorate 
the capture of four pirates by Ferdinand 1st. 

The Jews have a synagogue which is one of the 
wealthiest in Italy. 

We were accompanied to Pisa and Florence by a 
lady and gentleman belonging to the Quake?' City 
party, and we now begin to meet the excursionists 
scattered through Italy. 

Pisa is a lonely looking city. We drive at once 


across tlie Arno to the Campanile, or Leaning Tow- 
er, to tlie Duomo, Baptistry, and the Campo Santo, 
which are all clustered near together. Ascending 
the winding steps of the leaning tower, nearly two 
hundred feet, until we are fatigued and quite out of 
breath, we reach the summit of the second wonder 
of the world. The view is fine, but there is a feel- 
ing of fear possessing you that cannot be shaken 
off ; a fear that you are about to fall. The tower has 
remained in this position many centuries. There 
are different opinions in regard to its origin and 
leaning position, some claiming that it was built as 
it now stands, others that the foundation sunk while 
the tower was being erected. This opinion is 
strengthened by the fact that the columns are of un- 
equal length about midway in the shaft, as though 
there had been an effort to restore the perpendicu- 
lar. In fact the unequal length of the columns can 
scarcely be accounted for by any other hypothesis. 
The tower consists of two circular walls, each two 
feet thick, and the stairs run up between them. 
The space or well inside the inner wall is ten feet 


across. The whole tower is 190 feet high, and is 
divided into eight stories, each one having a balcony 
seven feet wide. The top of the column is " out of 
the true" some fifteen feet ; but still it is said that 
" the line of gravity falls within the base^" so we are 
foolish to have any fear of falling. It may be so, 
but that does not destroy the instinct of insecurity 
which is decidedly unpleasant to say the least. 

In the Duomo hangs the lamp which suggested 
the idea of the Pendulum to Galileo when he was 
eighteen years of age. He was born in Pisa in 15 64. 

Reaching Florence, we take a room at the " Grand 
Hotel De I'Europe." This is a lovely city, built on 
both banks of the river Arno, and is by far the hand- 
somest and most cheerful city in Italy. It abounds 
in parks and gardens. The collections of paintings 
and statuary are more varied and ancient than in 
the Louvre or at Versailles ; more of the master- 
pieces of Murillo, Michael Angelo, Leonardo Da Yin- 
ci, Raphael, and Rubens are seen here than at any 
other place. Days are required to wander through 
the miles of statuary and paintings in the Pitti pal- 


ace, the Uffizi galleries, to walk over the gardens, 
and to examine the royal plate of gold and silver, 
to say nothing of the libraries and rich museums. 

What a terrible history is recorded of the Medici 
family, who so long occupied this Pitti palace. Cos- 
mo di Medici, called " The Great" and his brother 
Lorenzo The Magnificent, were famous patrons of 
art and conspicuous as leaders in the republic. 
Lorenzo opened a garden in Florence filled with an- 
tique statuary and devoted it to the use of artists. 
Among those who availed themselves of this gar- 
den was the young Michael Angelo, who so won the 
admiration of Lorenzo that he took him under his 
special patronage, giving him rooms in the palace 
and treating him like a son. Michael Angelo's stat- 
ue of Lorenzo in the Medici Chapel at Florence is 
one of the most renowned works of art. The fa- 
mous Catharine di Medici was the daughter of Lo- 

We visited the house of Michael Angelo, still 
owned by his descendants. It is built of light yel- 
low colored stone, three stories high, with iron bar- 


red windows, whicli is the Florentine style. With- 
in are relics of him and some of his" paintings. 

Dante's house is very different in architecture, 
the roof projecting over the sidewalk, and much 
more anticpae looking than that of Michael Angelo. 
Galileo's villa where he received Milton is alst 
in a good state of preservation. The Cathedral or 
Duomo with its peerless dome and extraordinarily 
handsome stained glass windows, the Baptistry with 
its curious bronze doors which Michael Angelo said 
were beautiful enough to be the gates of Paradise, 
the church of San Lorenzo containing the tomb in 
which are buried the Medici family, the church of 
Santa Croce where Michael Angelo Buonarotti, Mac- 
chiavelli, Galileo, Alfieri, and other illustrious great 
are buried ; the house of Americus Yespucci, the 
Cascine which is the Bois de Bologne of the Floren- 
tines, all came in for their share of attention. We 
spent a pleasant hour at the studio of the American 
sculptor Hiram Powers, who has acquired a world 
wide fame. He is a pleasant unaffected gentleman ap- 
parently about 60 years of age, and so cordial in his 



manner that we felt quite at home while he was en- 
tertaining us in his parlor. He then accompanied 
us all through his studio ; among other statues 
just finished was one of the "Greek Slave," for 
which he asked four thousand dollars. He had also 
just completed a bust of his wife and was at work 
upon one of his daughter. 

Mr. Povv^ers informed us that the time was not far 
distant when he should return to America to spend 
the remainder of his days. 

Passing across the square in front of the Ducal 
palace one evening, we met a funeral procession 
which had more of the weird and ghastly about it 
than any thing I had seen abroad. It was a proces- 
sion of priests in black masks and long black gowns. 
As they marched along with slow and measured 
tread, each bearing a lighted torch in his hand, they 
chanted a solemn funeral dirge in Latin. The coffin, 
covered with a black pall reaching nearly to the 
ground and supporting a large white cross at its 
head, was borne by the same ghastly masks. A 

procession of this character in the night in an illy 


lighted street, is certainly well calculated to strike a 
vague terror to tlie heart of the strongest. 

Florence excels Leghorn in its alabaster works ; in 
the windows of its numerous alabaster stores which 
are on almost every street, are seen models of " The 
Dancing Girls of Italy," " The Three Graces," '' The 
Greek Slave," " The Yenus di Medici," " The Apol- 
lo Belvidere," and exquisite imitations of the Lean- 
ing Tower of Pisa. One of the most curious things 
in Florence is the Ponte Yecchio or old bridge over 
the Arno. The carriage-way is lined on either side 
by quaint jewelry shops, and overhead is the fa- 
mous secret passage or gallery connecting the Pitti 
palace on one side of the Arno with the Palazzo 
Yecchio on the other. Another object of inter- 
est which we visited was the old Roman wall, now 
being removed by order of the King. From " Fair 
Florence," then we turned our steps to Rome. 



JYITA Yecchia, Cervetri, Palo, and we hear 
tlie cry " Homa ! Roma ! " Our passports 

and baggage being attended to we proceed 

to the ''Hotel de Roma." 
Is this the city of the seven hills ? " The Eter- 
nal City," founded seven hundred and fifty-two years 
before Christ ? Is this the Rome once over fifty 
miles in circumference, whose empire ruled almost 
the whole known world ? Is this the home of the 
Caesars ? Are these the streets along which Rom- 
ulus, Adrian, Nero, Titus, and Constantine, rode in 
triumph, returning from victorious battles? Yes, 
Rome, I stand upon thy classic soil, but thy glory 
has departed. I see the remnants of thy marble 
fountains, the broken pillars of thy temples and 
palaces, the ruins of thy Forum, the decaying 

94 HOME. • 

forms of tlij arches, tlij Coliseum, Pautheon, mon- 
uments, and broken walls all pointing to thy ancient 
power and splendor. 

These are thoughts which crowd upon my mind, 
as I go from place to place, in modern Eome. 

We have comfortable apartments at the Hotel de 
Roma and good fare. It was at this Hotel that the 
Empress Carlotta, wife of the unfortunate Maximil- 
ian, remained while visiting the Pope for advice, 
and consolation in her time of grief The landlord 
with much pride shows to his guests the suite of 
rooms which she occupied. 

Several vetturini or hackmeu are ready every 
morning, each one anxious to be engaged for the 
day. It is an old saying, that there is a church in 
Rome for every day of the year, thirty thousand 
priests, and as many beggars. We soon began to 
believe in the truth of the saying, for everywhere 
we went, priests and beggars were to be seen in 
great numbers. The beggars are very persevering. 
Some meeting with success in obtaining a few copper 
coins, would rush around the corner, and take theii^ 

ROME. 95 

place on anotlier street, and confronting jou with 
voice and look changed, importnne with all the 
energy of their first attack, declaring that they had 
never seen you before. The lazzaroni are up to a 
thousand tricks. 

There are about six thousand Jews in Rome, 
inhabiting a part of the city, called the Ghetto. 
They were formerly much oppressed by the 
Romans, but now greater liberty is granted them. 
They trace their ancestry back to the prisoners 
which Titus brought to Rome from Jerusalem, in 
the first century of our era. 

As every stranger visits St. Peter's first, we will 
not be an exception to the rule. Entering the 
^'•Piazza di San Pietro^^^ the eye sweeps around a 
avast colonnade of over three hundred and sixty 
columns, surmounted by statues. Crossing the 
piazza by the Egyptian obelisk, with a fountain on 
the right and left, we approach St. Peters. Over 
the entrance are immense statues of Christ, and the 
twelve apostles. Ascending the steps, and pushing 
aside the heavy curtain in front of the door, we en- 

96 ROME. 

ter, and stand for some time contemplating the im- 
mensity of the interior of a struct are, costing over 
one hundred million dollars. Numerous chapels, 
diverging from the main aisle, are filled with altars 
and paintings. The lofty ceiling is richly carved 
and gilded. There hang the pontifical keys. As 
we approach the high altar beneath the great dome 
and over St. Peter's grave, on the right is the 
statue of St. Peter. We see a procession of people 
passing the statue, each one stopping to kiss the 
great toe which is almost worn away, although 
made of bronze. Often could be seen a beggar, 
performing the ceremony, perhaps the next in turn 
an elegantly attired lady, who would take out a 
a highly perfumed handkerchief, and wipe the toe, 
before putting her lips to it. All seemed to go 
away with the consciousness that they had performed 
a sacred duty. Arranged around in the side aisles, 
were a large number of confessional boxes, each one 
containing a priest and penitent, while several 
would be waiting their turn to confess their sins. 
One is impressed with the vastness of St. Peters 

ROME. 97 

when standing on tlie marble pavement below, but 
even more while ascending to the dome. 

Next in importance is the church of St. John 
Lateran, so called from the Senator Plautius Later- 
anus, put to death by Nero. The popes are 
crowned in this church. It contains the tomb of 
the present Pope, which he has ordered built 
at great expense. Near the Lateran are the Holy 
Stairs, up which can be seen people ascending on 
their knees. 

In the church of Maria Maggiore, is a painting of 
the ^^Yirgin and Child," by St. Luke; it looks very 
old and the figures are just discernable by the aid 
of our opera glasses. The frame is composed of 
the most precious stones. This painting was car- 
ried by Gregory the Great, through Home, at the 
head of a procession, to stop a terrible plague that 
was raging during his reign. 

One cannot fail to be impressed with the thought 
while gazing upon these great structures filled with 
the mostly costly works of art, that it is a great waste 

98 ROME. 

of money while tliousancls of the citizens of Rome 
are sunk in ignorance and poverty. 

One fact tells loudly of the decadence of Chris- 
tian Rome or of bad management under the Popes. 
While there have been so many hundreds of mil- 
lions expended upon the churches in former times, 
the government of the present day is not able to 
raise money enough to keep them in repair ! 

St. Paul's church or the "Tomb of St. Paul," out- 
side of the city, I must not include in the above. 
It is built of many varieties of the most beautiful 
colored marbles, and contains the portraits of all 
the Popes, executed in mosaic. This building is in 
perfect repair, and is the finest tomb in the world. 
Near St. Paul's gate is the Pyramid of Caius Cestius, 
and the tomb of Shelley bearing the inscription " cor 
cordium'' or ''\\QViYi of hearts." After the burn- 
ing of his body in the presence of Leigh Hunt, 
Lord Byron, and other friends, the heart of the poet, 
it is said, was found among the ashes perfect and 

We next visited the Flavian Amphitheatre or 


Coliseum, dedicated by Titus in the year 80, on which 
occasion according to Eutropius, five thousand wild 
beasts were destroyed. Dion places the number at 
nine thousand. This gigantic structure was capable 
of holding from eighty thousand to one hundred 
thousand spectators. It is in an elliptical form, 
five hundred and ten feet broad and six hun- 
dred and fifteen feet long. The arena itself is 
two hundred and -eighty-one feet long by one 
hundred and seventy-six feet wide. Around this 
arena countless thousands have assembled to see 
their fellow beings torn to pieces by wild beasts ! 
The gladiators have met hero in fierce combat, their 
life's blood ebbing avfay amid the shouts and huzzas 
of the multitude. I call to mind one scene, as I 
stand within these mouldering walls. 

It was a holiday in Rome in the fifth century. 
Gathered from all parts of the city, until the seats of 
the Coliseum were crowded, are the fairest and 
best of Rome's society. Seated in the imperial box, 
with his nobles around him, is the good king Honor- 
ias, who had just arrived, with Stilicho his victorious 

102 ^^^^^^• 

The gladiators enter the arena, and the conflict 
commences. One after another is slain. Death- 
like silence prevails, while two are in deadly con- 
flict. Suddenly a stranger enters the circle, and 
springing between the powerful combatants, 
wrests their swords from their hands and becomes 
master of the arena. Turning toward the imperial 
box the interrupter of the spectacle, Telemachus a 
monk, began to address the Emperor, calling upon 
him in the name of a christian people, to cease such 
bloody scenes. A howl of rage went up from the 
assembled throng, as they hurled upon him a 
shower of stones. He fell to the earth, again and 
again he attempted to rise, but was beaten down. 
At last he slowly and with a mighty struggle raised 
himself and turned toward Honorius, but could not 
speak. He sank back upon the ground, dying with 
a smile upon his countenance, as the last words 
which he heard was the solemn declaration of the 
Emperor in the presence of his God, that this was 
the last of such scenes which should ever be wit- 



nessed in Rome; and this martyr the last who 
should fall on the arena of the Coliseum. 

Rome is so rich in monuments of its ancient 
splendor that it is difficult to decide — not what to 
describe, but what to leave out of any general de- 
scription of the city. The Castle of St. Angelo 
deserves mention certainly. It is a citadel whose 


center or nucleus was the tomb of Hadrian, and it 

now serves as a state prison. It is connected with 

the palace of the Vatican by a long covered gallery. 

I will not delay to pen a description of the Pan- 

204 ROME. 

tlieon, built in the 3^ear twenty-seven by King 
Agrippa, in wliicli lie the remains of Raphael; the 
Mamertine prison where St. Peter was confined ; 
the Quirinal; the Pope's summer palace; Hadrian's 
Villa ; Csesar's palace on Palatine Hill ; the Appian 
Way or the Vatican with its four thousand rooms, 
its vast number of statues and other sculptured 
treasures of ancient art. What a thrilling inter- 
est they awaken in one when wandering among 
them ! In the painting gallery of the Vatican is 
Raphael's last work, "The Transfiguration." 

Every one before leaving the city is expected to 
purchase a few Roman scarfs, also some mosaics, 
which are here largely manufactured, the material 
being given out from the Vatican. 

While seated at breakfast our cicerone informed 
us that we could see Mastai Ferretti, the Pope. 
Hastening to the Vatican we left o.ur carriage near 
the colonnade, then walked up the long marble steps 
between files of papal soldiers, and took our position 
at the entrance of the hall. In a moment his Holi- 
ness stood in front of us ; and reaching forth his 



hand, with three fingers extended, gave us his 
blessing. He has a* mild and pleasant countenance, 
his hair is white with the frost of time, and he moves 
with a slow and steady step. He was dressed in a 
crimson velvet robe, embroidered with gold, with 
an ermine tippet, and a black velvet cap upon his 
head. Accom^Danied by two of his cardinals, who 
wore long black velvet robes, and followed by a 
long train of attendants, he entered a massive car- 
riage, richly decorated with gold ornaments, and 
drawn by six superb black horses, surrounded by 
a mounted body guard of about two hundred and 
fifty. The cortege moved to the church of the 
Maggiore. As Ihey passed along the streets many 
of the people fell upon their knees. 

Over sixteen years the Pope has been guarded 
by French troops, who have recently been with- 
drawn. As Rome is now to be the capital 
of Italy, and the residence of its king, we may 
expect a great change. 

Will Rome again become a powerful and a splen- 
did city? Under the new regime, the first element 

LOG ^''>^^^- 

of which is the separation of the Church and State, 
everything is possible, though the most devotedly- 
blind adherents to the Pope see in his loss of tempo- 
ral power, the decline of the principle of religion 
in society ; forgetting that superstition is not neces- 
sarily piety, nor blind devotion to dogmas a sign of 
religious sentiment. Certainly this is the age of 
iconoclasm, but we must expect the first effects of re- 
ligious freedom to be extravagantly disorderly ; still 
we may trust to nature in this as in all other cases . 
to establish the equilibrium. Give the railroad, the 
telegraph, and the public school a fair show against 
the dogma of Infallibility and the dogma will have 
to yield. Rome, the capital of free Italy, may yet 
become the " mistress of the world " in a far nobler 
sense than ever before. 



HE Romans enjoy at least one luxury during 
even the warmest months of the year, they 
h^ve an abundance of pure cool water. 
In summer it is not considered prudent 
for strangers to leave their rooms before sunrise or 
after sunset owing to a malaria which arises from 
the Pontine marshes. 

These marshes are the low southern portion of 
the Campagna — a vast tract of land surrounding 
Rome. The soil of the Campagna is volcanic, some 
of its lake basins being extinct craters. The marsh- 
es cover a plain some twenty four miles long and 
eight or ten miles wide, being formed by several 
small streams that flow down the Yolscian moun- 
tains, and finding no outlet to the sea through the 
sand drifts, spread over the land. Once, however, 


the site of tlie Pontine marshes was dry, for the Ap- 
pian way was carried over them some three . hund- 
red years before Christ. Julius Caesar, Augustus, 
and others have attempted to drain them. A canal 
was dug along the Appian way which Horace in 
the year 37 B. C. speaks of traveling over. The mi- 
asma rising from these marshes is not often carried 
as far as the city except by strong south winds. 

Leaving E^ome in the morning we were again 
subjected to the passport and luggage annoyance, 
as the Papal authorities are more strict than any 
which we have found in Europe. 

Riding along the Campagna, on every hand are 
relics of ancient Rome — here an old castle, there an 
old wall or tower, and for a long distance out of the 
city can be seen the ruins of the old Roman acque- 
duct, one of the famous relics of the ancient wealth 
and greatness of Rome. 

The female peasantry are at work in the fields, 
some gathering while others are preparing vegeta- 
bles for market ; they appear industrious and cheer- 
ful. It is a well known assertion that the moral 


condition of tlie country people of Italy is mucli su- 
perior to that of those residing in the cities. We pas- 
sed large orchards of cork trees, many with the thick 
bark recently taken off the trunk for exportation. 
Quite a revenue is derived from this source. One" 
notably picturesque scene attracts our attention as 
we drew near the city of Naples. This was the 
peasant women carrying quaint vases of water on 
their heads. 

At Caserta, on the route, is the palace where for- 
merly resided the king of Naples. It is a large and 
elegant structure, now unoccupied, covering seve- 
ral acres. 

Here the vineyards, which are the wealth of 
Italian husbandry, have a lovely peculiarity. The 
vines are twined from tree to tree by means of a 
rope, and hang in beautiful garlands. 
" Here the vines wed each her elm." 

Rattling through the streets of Naples to the 
Hotel de Amerique, we are once more in sight 
of the Mediteranean, with the steamer Quaker City 
anchored in the bay. 


Naples is proverbial for the beauty of its situation ; 
it is built along the bay of Naples, forming a half 
circle or crescent, and like the rest of the Italian 
cities, it has plenty of churches, priests, and lazzaro- 
ni. The Neapolitans are a gay people and devotees 
to the shrine of pleasure. They think much of 
their beauty, and the height of their ambition is to 
ride in a carriage along the fashionable drive by 
the bay. Women of any social rank do not walk 
in the streets, it being derogatory to their dignity. 
On the flat roofs of their houses adorned with shrubs 
and flowers, the women frequently find nearly all 
of tiieir out-of-door exercise. Living costs but lit- 
tle to the poor of Naples. Three cents procures a 
meal of macaroni, and three more a dish of good 
fish, or vegetables fried in oil. These luxuries are 
supplied by the itinerant street cooks. For a frac- 
tion of a cent the Neapolitan has a glass of iced 
water, and for two, an addition of sugar and grape 
juice. Ice is abundant from natural ice caverns in 
the rocks above Sorrento and even on Vesuvius. 
This ice is taken out in the evening, and made to slide 

J />. >o'i^|| ||) III iliiKilliniiniiiiiininMLi 
4k 1 



clown the mountain on ropes ; then it is put into 
boats which carry it across the bay and land it in 
the early morning. 

The street scenes are very animated. Here and 
there are groups of girls, not the most tidy looking, 
some playing upon musical instruments, others sing- 
ing. Along comes a curious kind of vehicle drawn 
by one horse. It is a platform set upon two wheels 
with a high and low seat, filled with people. On 
the front and back stand those who cannot sit down, 
the number sometimes ranging from twelve to fif- 
teen, a motley looking crowd, all talking and laugh- 

I was exceedingly amused to see the old market 
men and women trotting along with their donkeys 
loaded with vegetables, each donkey decked out 
gaily with different colored worsteds on their heads 
and strings of large blue beads around their necks. 
Some with great frames on their backs filled with 
lemons, figs, grapes, peaches, pears, and apricots. 

The fruit here is delicious, plenty, and very cheap, 
and in the fruit season forms the chief article of food 


for the people. With this and a little macaroni 
they make many a meal. 

Flower girls are numerous and often annoyingly 
persistent in selling their bouquets. They seldom 
ask you to buy, but running along beside your car- 
riage, toss their flowers into it and keep up the 
chase until they get their pay. If you hand the 
flowers back they are sure to toss them up to 
you again, so the most satisfactory way is to pur- 
chase at once. Frequently in the evening, the 
street singers would come beneath our window, 
and with their clear voices, would sweetly sing 
their native songs. 

This place is a great coral mart. No one should 
come to Naples without calling into the coral shops 
to see the exquisite workmanship. 

An interesting excursion from the city is to the 
Bay of Baiae, and the hot mineral springs, former- 
ly called the hot baths of Nero. Csesar, Augustus, 
Tiberias, Caligula, and Nero once resorted to this 
place, which was the fashionable resort of the Ro- 
man nobles, who for want of room often built their 


houses out into the bay. Their submarine founda- 
tions are still to be seen, as are also certain circular 
buildings which they built for their hot baths. To 
reach these baths we passed through the Grotto 
di Pozzuoli, a tunnel over 2000 feet long and exca- 
vated in the mountain. Near the entrance is the cel- 
ebrated columbarium covered with vines, called the 
tomb of Yirgil. 

The mineral baths are much resorted to by inva- 
lids, and the building over them is fitted up conven- 
iently with many bath-rooms. In the center of the 
reception room is a fountain of hot water, and under 
the hall the proprietor showed us one of the natu- 
ral springs. The steam that arose from it was hot 
and suffocating. 

The Neapolitans have two Campo Santos, one 
vv^here the wealthy are buried with much care, the 
other for the poor who are all huddled together in 
one vault. All the funerals take place at night. 
The explanation given is that the sight of the fune- 
rals passing through the streets in the day time had 
so serious an effect on the minds of the people, as 


to often produce a panic ; and for tliis reason the 
government ordered that all burials should take 
place at midnight. Returning to our hotel one eve- 
ning, we met one of these funeral processions, and 
were informed that it was some rich person who had 
died. There were a number of men walking in 
white masks and gowns, carrying long lighted can- 
dles; following were several priests chanting. The 
coffin, which was covered with black velvet and gilt 
trimmings, was costly and elaborate. It was borne 
on the shoulders of men, followed by the relatives 
and friends of the deceased. 

The castle of St. Elmo crowns a high rock over- 
looking the whole city and guarding it by its numer- 
ous guns. 

The figure of the Veiled Christ, in one of the 
chapels, is a very curious wor^ of art. It is a full 
length figure over which rests a thin, delicate veil, 
so gauzy that through it each feature is distinctly 
visible, and even the expression of the face, and yet 
it is all wrought out of a solid block of Carrara mar- 
ble. We did not learn the sculptor s name. 


In tliG cathedral of Naples is the celebrated Chap- 
el of San Gennarro or Saint Januarius, the patron 
saint of the city. This Chapel contains the two vials 
of the blood of the Saint — on ordinary days ap- 
parently a small quantity of dried substance in the 
bottom of the vials. Another chapel contains the 
Saint's head in a glass case. These are exposed to 
public view on certain occasions, and when the 
head is brous^ht near the bottles an alleo^ed miracle 
occurs. The dark substance in the vials is seen to 
grow red and then rise and bubble — to all ap- 
pearance becoming fresh blood. This liquid soon 
falls again when the head is removed, and returns 
to the original dark dry substance. During the feast 
of St. Januarius this miracle continues some days, 
and scientific men have witnessed it and have giv- 
en more or less plausible explanations of it ; but it is 
needless to say that they would not be permitted to 
subject it to a scientific investigation. Relics must 
not be subjected to the touch of sacrilegious hands. 
Eoman Catholics believe the liquefaction of the blood 


of Saint Januarius to be a real miracle. Pope Pius 
11. mentions the miracle as early as 1450. 

To describe tlie rich collections of the Museo 
Borbonico would require too much space. It com- 
prises a vast and ever increasing collection of treas- 
ures from the excavations of the buried cities of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii, besides its galleries of 
paintings, statuary, Egyptian antiquities, bronzes, 
pottery, coins, and its valuable library. In several 
of the galleries artists were busy copying the works 
of the masters. 

In parting for a time from the museums and gal- 
leries of art in Europe, I take the liberty of saying 
that I have often noticed Americans bestowing much 
unnecessary admiration on works of art, simply be- 
cause some guide book had extolled them. On the 
other hand, there is much to be seen which cannot 
fail to excite wonder and admiration ; for instance, 
I do not understand how any one can gaze ujDon 
Murillo's " Conception" in the Louvre, RaphaeFs 
" Transfiguration" in the Vatican, Giovane's " Last 
Judgment," and Tintoretto's " Paradise " in Venice, 


or Paul Veronese's " Holy Family" in Florence, and 
not go away deeply impressed with the conviction 
that they are the human soul's highest conception 
of divine beauty. 



iHIS deliglitful day we have ascended Vesu- 
vius. Reacliing Resina our carriage was 
immediately surrounded by a crowd of for- 
lorn looking Italians all anxious to be em- 
ployed as guides up tlie volcano, some with don- 
keys, others with horses, each one declaring his ani- 
mal to be the best and safest. After a great deal 
of confusion we succeeded in selecting our horses 
and commenced the ascent, the crowd following a 
long distance until thej were driven back. The 
guides whom we had chosen kept whipping the 
horses and urging them forward with a peculiar 
call, which the animals appeared to understand. 
Gradually rising for nearly five miles our path lay 

" I iiM I 111 "I 11" ' ii iiiiiii 




througli yinejards until we came to a large open 
field of lava. Our horses with much difficulty 
picked their way over this dark and uneven surface, 
until we reached the Hermitage, which has been 
built for the convenience of travelers, and at which 
place the government has built an observatory. 

The distance to the cone being not over two 
miles from here, they can accurately foretell when 
an eruption is to take place ; no one is then allow- 
ed to approach the mountain. 

Crossing another lava region we reached a sandy 
plain at the foot of the cone where we leave our 
horses. Holding fast to a leather strap which was 
drawn by the guides, we commenced the laborious 
task of ascendmg. Several times I began to doubt 
that I should ever reach the top. The more I 
toiled the longer seemed the way, for my feet would 
sink into the scorise and slip down the almost per- 
pendicular side. At last by perseverance we gained 
the summit of Vesuvius. The interior of the cone 
was quiet and presented a magnificent spectacle. 
Stepping down upon the crater, which was harden- 


ed, we crossed to the center. Through the crevices 
of the crater would come hot blasts of sulphurous 
air, for the moment making it difficult to breathe ; 
and often it would sound hollow under our feet as 
though we were standing upon a thin crust. Here 
we looked down several hundred feet into the fiery 
mouth of the volcano. The sides all around are 
covered with incrustations of sulphur of the most 
lovely shades of yellow, brown, red, and green. 
While gazing I began to feel faint, my breath be- 
came short, and, with assistance, I hastened back to 
the outer edge, where I soon revived. 

Not many years ago, two travelers explor- 
ing Vesuvius, ventured too near the center, 
when one of them fell a distance of several feet. 
His companion could hear his voice calling for help, 
but he could not see him. Procuring a rope he 
threw it over, but it was too short, as the crater on 
which the unfortunate man was standing had 
crumbled under his feet and he had fallen again. 
His voice could still be heard growing fainter and 
fainter, until the narrow ledge gave way and he 


was plunged into the awful gulf. We are told that 
suicides often occur among the Neapolitans, one of 
the frequent methods being to ascend Vesuvius 
in time of eruption and throw themselves into the 
terrible furnace. But I am digressing. 

The sun is setting ; the west is suffused with crim- 
son and amber clouds. The city of Naples is 
plainly seen scattered along the shore of the bay. 
The island of Capri lifts its rocky head out of the 
blue sea, and down upon the plain we perceive our 
group of horses, mere specks upon the sand, await- 
ing our return. To the east, as far as the eye can 
reach toward the Adriatic, are Italian villages dot- 
ting the landscape. The descent to the plain is a 
work of but a few minutes, though at every step 
the feet are buried deep in the ashes. It was long 
after midnight when we drove into Naples, and 
greatly exhausted we welcomed rest and sleep. 

Entering the silent city of Pompeii, what a lonely 
scene presents itself as we walk through the desert- 
ed streets. All is quiet. Now and then a lizard 
darts across our path and hides beneath some old 
stone or ruin. 


As we wander along througli this silent city, the 
mind runs back almost eighteen centuries when 
these streets were thronged with the gay and 
thoughtless. Yonder amphitheatre was crowded 
with an eager multitude watching the combat of 
gladiators. Here in the Forum the statesmen elo- 
quently addressed his fellow-citizens. In that Hall 
near by the sound of revelry was heard. Around 
those fountains, and in that temple, walked the 
proud and envious. In this villa, assembled at the 
festive board, were a goodly company, making 
merry with the choicest wines and viands. Here 
upon these seats, a vast concourse of people ap- 
plauded as the curtain fell, and the actor was called 
to the front of the stage. In that prison gloomily 
sat the chained criminals. At the gates of the city 
were posted the sentinels. 

What means this cry of alarm ? Whence the wail 
that sounds through the streets ? The heavens are 
darkening, the moon is turned to blood, the air is 
thick with falling ashes, the music and the dance are 


husliod, tlie play stops, tlie voice of the speaker 
ceases, the strong tremble, mothers call in vain for 
their children, husbands search for their wives, 
friends look after friends, but the terrible shower 
continues. Higher and higher rises the flood, until 
all sounds are hushed, doors, windows, arches, tem- 
ples, columns, towers, walls, and palaces disappear. 
Where now is the mighty city Pompeii ? Buried for 
ages in a living grave ! 

We were received at one of the gates, and piloted 
through the city by a government guard. We 
walked up one street and down another ; across open 
courts paved in mosaic ; into many of the houses 
where the walls were covered with frescoes and the 
halls paved with polished marbles. We are led 
up and down several flights of stone steps and climb 
over broken columns. After inspecting the public 
baths, with marble tubs, we pass out of the Hercu- 
laneum gate, where we see the sentinel's box, in 
which his skeleton was found. Gathering a few 
sprays of ivy which covered the box, we bid fare- 


well to the deserted city. Returning to the hotel, 
we began to make preparations to leave Europe for 
the East, as to-morrow we go on board of the 
steamer Quaker City. 




^i^HERE floats the excursion steamer in the 
harbor. We cannot mistake her with her 
bright red wheels and " U. S. M," " Uncle 
Sam's" monogram, on her sides. From 
her mast head is floating the stars and stripes. A 
small boat conveyed us to her, and as we stepped 
up the gang plank to the vesseFs side, I endeavored 
to realize the fact thaj: this was to be our home for 
months. We were met by the captain's wife who 
kindly called the stewardess to show us to our state- 
room. No. 29, which we found neatly arranged 
and more spacious than those of the English steam- 
ers. It had two berths, wash-stand, and a long seat 
with a cover, which you could raise and pack away 
many articles. This had a cushion covered with 
red velvet forming a sofa. The state-room also 


contained a mirror, a number of shelves, and the 
floor was nicely carpeted. From our room a small 
passage led to the ladies' saloon in which were 
several crimson velvet sofas, easy chairs, and a 
piano. There are two of these saloons, both with 
the same arrangement, and both having state-rooms 
along the sides. 

A flight of brightly polished steps leads us into 
the dining saloon with six long tables. At the win- 
dows were pretty damask curtains and gilt cornices. 

The " Pilgrims" were gradually gathering on 
board from their wanderings. As most of them had 
baen making extensive purchases in Italy and Swit- 
zerland, they came bearing quantities of packages ; 
some with a stock of velvet and kid gloves, others 
with rolls of silk and sets of cameo and mosaic jew- 
ehy. Many had new gold watches from Geneva. 
Here come two passengers with a boat load of wine. 
One elderly gentleman whom they called the Ma- 
jor was showing a very costly coral necklace and 
set of jewelry. A gentleman from Illinois, who 
went by the ap^Dellation of Deacon, was spread- 


ing out some copies from the masters which he 
had purchased in some of the galleries. Several of 
the ladies were busy examining the quality of their 
purchases and comparing prices. The captain has 
just arrived from Rome, and last but not least, came 
Mark Twain, one of the ''Innocents Abroad." A 
few were preparing letters to be mailed before we 
leave for the Orient. One gentleman is seated at 
the table engaged in writing poetry ; he is called 
the poet of the party. We soon began to feel at 
home. There was no doubting the nationality of 
the company, and it was pleasant to hear again our 
native tongue spoken. Floating around the ship 
are a large number of small boats with articles for 
sale ; one is filled with a variety of straw work, an- 
other with fruits, one had pictures for sale, and in 
one an old man was playing w^ith bagpipes while 
on the seat in front of him were two dancing dolls 
which he kept in motion. 

Sailing around us in a boat were two beautiful 
Italian girls playing on guitars and singing. On 
deck are some Italians singing the Garibaldi song, 



wliicli lias now become very familiar to us. From 
here we expected to go to Palermo ; but owing to 
the prevalence of cholera there, we decided to sail 
directly for the Grecian Islands. 

It is a glorious day as we sail out of the bay of 
Naples. Here at one glance is seen the matchless 
panorama of the city and its surroundings. As 
night approaches and the sun sinks in the west, we 
have the full effect of what I had always longed to 
see, an Italian sunset. It would certainly be a diffi- 
cult task to describe the magnificent spectacle, 
but remembering the many glorious sunsets wit- 
nessed in my own loved country, I scarcely am 
willing to believe that anj^ in the world can surpass 
them. There is one beauty of the evening sky, how- 
ever, which I think is peculiar to Italy. I ob- 
served it specially at Florence. This is a splendid 
translucent green tinge which harmonizes better 
than blue with the golden glory of the stars. 

Sailing by Stromboli, the reflection of its fire up- 
on the sky was visible far into the hours of night. 
It was not far from midnight when we sailed through 


the Straits of Messina with " Scylla on one hand 
and Chary bdis on the other." Perched upon the 
shore of Sicily, with its hundreds of glancing lights, 
could be seen in the moonlight the city of Messina. 
The next morning we glided along close to the 
rocky shores of Italy. On the right, far off in the 
dim haze, towered mount ^tna, with its top of ev- 
erlasting snow, while at its base are perpetually 
blossoming orange groves and luxuriant vineyards. 



OR two days our ship was sailing on the 
g,>^T Ionian sea. Entering the Grecian Archipel- 

ago near Cerigo, we soon passed the islands 
of Siphanto, Spezzia, Serfo, and Hydra, 
The atmosphere is very clear and objects are dis- 
cernable at a great distance. These islands have a 
sterile and rocky appearance. Grecian villages are 
built along the sides of the hills, and around the 
islands were sailing numerous fishing boats, with 
their curious rigged sails. Eounding a point of 
land we came to anchor in the harbor of Piraeus, 
the port of Athens, and about five miles from the 
city, where the King's palace .and the Parthenon 
could be plainly seen from our ship. 

On shore were hundrads of Cretan refugees who 
had been brought here from the island of Crete, 
to be taken care of by the Grecian govern- 


ment and the charity of different nations. Wo- 
men and children were slowly moving to and fro 
among the tents in which they lived, carrying food 
from one to another, presenting a sorrowful spec- 
tacle of suffering, while their brave husbands and 
fathers were fighting for liberty in their own native 
island. As our company are about getting ready 
to go on shore and visit Athens, word is sent out 
from the authorities of Piraeus that no one will be 
allowed to land from our vessel until after we have 
remained in quarantine for nearly two weeks. Here 
was something of a disappointment, for bright were 
Xhe anticipations of seeing Athens, the Parthenon, 
Mars' Hill, and the ruins of ancient Greece. There 
they are within plain sight and yet we cannot visit 
them ! In vain did our captain urge that Vv^e were 
a pleasure party, with not a person ill on board ; 
but our steamer had come from an Italian port and 
the fiat had gone forth, so there was nothing we 
could do but submit. 

The Greek boatmen are not at all bashful. They 
gathered around with various articles for sale, not 

142 ATHENS. 

anxious evidently to quarantine our money. The 
process of trading between these boatmen and the 
passengers was quite amusing. They would reach 
out whatever article was for sale attached to the 
end of a long pole; and to receive payment they 
would hand up a small pail of water into which the 
gold or silver must be dropped, which, after being 
well shaken, they would take out and put in their 
pockets, well assured that if there was any plague 
about the coin it was completely washed off. In 
this way quite an extensive traffic was carried on. 
Undercover of night some of oar party made a trip 
to the Parthenon ; we afterward learned that they 
stopped to gather grapes on the way. Early in 
the morning another party disguised in the Greek 
costume, set out for a ramble among the ruins of 
Athens. They did not have time to examine the 
vineyards, but were seen from our decks hastily 
returning followed by Greek soldiers. The chase 
was exciting ; a boat bearing the flag of Greece is 
seen to leave the custom house ; at the same mo- 
ment a boat left our steamer bearinor the stars and 

ATHENS. 143 

stripes. Now it was a race on land and water ; but 
the Grecians were defeated, and tlie venturesome 
Pilgrims were brought back in safety. 

This is a golden day. The classic land of Greece 
lies bathed in the sunlight. Yonder is the moun- 
tain on which a powerful king sat to see upon this 
bay his conquered fleet destroyed in a single day. 
There sleeps in peace the battle plain. 

" The mountains looked on Marathon, 
And Marathon looked on the sea ; 
And, musing there an hour alone, 
I dreamt that Greece might still be free." 

We can see the hill on which Paul stood and 
preached with such power to the Athenians. We 
can see the ruins of temples which belonged to a 
land of learning, art, and song. 

It is the unanimous decision that we will not re- 
main here to serve out the quarantine, but leave at 
once for Constantinople. The decision is quickly 
acted upon. 

Passing more of the Grecian islands, we enter the 
Dardanelles. At the fortified town of the same name, 

144 ATHENS. 

a '-'•Pratique'' or health permit for the passengers 
to land at Constantinople was given to our steamer 
without delay. The shores are lined with forts and 
Turkish towns, and back of every village is a row 
of windmills in motion, grinding grain. In fi'ont 
of some of the dwellings veiled women were seat- 
ed conversing together. 

Entering the sea of Marmora, the next morning 
at daylight I was on deck to get the first glimpse 
of Constantinople which was in sight, with its tow- 
ers and minarets, its tall cypress trees and the 
dome of the mosque of Saint Sophia, all forming a 
charming picture. Sweeping around- Seraglio point 
we came to anchor in the mouth of the Golden 



I OR the first time I am in an Oriental city. We 
M? are among veiled women, and turbaned men. 
Now indeed we realize that we are among a 
foreign people. 
On horseback, with Turks leading our horses, we 
are slowly moving over the roughly paved streets 
of Stamboul to the bazaars. The air is filled with 
the unintelligible jargon of the people. Porters 
are running in every direction carrying enormous 
loads upon their shoulders. 

Venders are crying their wares, dogs are barking 
and beggars are following us calling hahsMsh! 
bakshish I We are bewildered with the noise and 


Ill Constantinople the bazaars are the shop- 
ping resort of the Oriental metropolis. They cover 
an area of many acres, and the streets are enclosed 
with arched roofs lighted from above. Along these 
streets are the little Turkish shops, their average size 
being about eight or ten feet square. These are open- 
ed and closed by doors with hinges at the top. In 
front is a platform on which the merchant sits smok- 
ing 2i narghirie OT dirmkmg coffee, but always ready 
for a trade. They set a price upon their merchandise, 
like the women in the Halles in Paris, double and 
sometimes treble their value, often with no expecta- 
tion of receiving the amount they ask. If you do not 
choose to purchase and go away they will send, or 
come after you to take the goods at almost any price. 
The bazaars are divided into smaller ones. There 
are those with shoes, embroideries, pipes, fancy 
goods, and among others the diamond bazaar. In 
this one the stock of each merchant is spread out in 
small glass cases which they freely exhibit. In one 
of these shops we were shown a very valuable arti- 
cle of jewelry containing about two hundred dia- 


moncls of unusually large size, being there for re- 
pairs, and we were told that it belonged to one of 
the Sultan's wives. 

The bazaars are crowded all day long, this being 
the favorite trading place of the people of the city. 

We stepped into a cafe and had coffee served 
in Turkish style. It was handed on a salver in 
tiny cups and was dark colored and very strong. 
No milk is used, but it is made remarkably sweet. 
This is their favorite beverage. 

There are not many wheeled vehicles excepting 
a few curious looking cabs, and all of those which 
we saw looked as if they were made fifty years ago, 
We tried one of them, and it broke down three 
times in going from Stamboul over to Pera, so we 
finally discarded it for the rest of the journey. The 
araha is a vehicle for ladies of rank and peculiar to 
the east. 

Most of the transportation of merchandise is done 
by porters, called liamals, and the loads which they 
carry are truly astonishing. Large poles rest upon 
the shoulders of the hamals between which is swung 


a bale of cotton, a hogshead of sugar, or a heavy 
piece of marbl^ ; and with this weight they -will run 
along from one part of the city to the other, with 
comparative ease. 

The streets are narrow, without sidewalks, poorly 
paved and abounding with sickly looking dogs. In 
one small square I counted thirty-three. The Turks 
in Constantinople, we were told, have a superstitious 
reverence for these animals ; consequently, they 
will not allow them to be injured. 

The city is divided into three parts, called Stam- 
boul, Galata, and Pera. These are connected by a 
bridge across the Golden Plorn ; Pera and Galata 
being on one side, and Stamboul on the other. Pera 
is the Frank quarter, or residence of all foreigners, 
and is the best part of the city. On the bridge 
over the Golden Horn we see a throng constantly 
crossing both ways. From this bridge ferry-boats 
are coming and going up the Bosphorus and across 
to Scutari. The water is alive with small canoes, 
called caiques. These boats are very light and skim 
along the water with great speed. In the bottom 



of the boat is placed a soft cushion for seats, and the 
Turkish people are sailing about in them in all 

The/e^, a red felt cap with a luxuriant black silk 
tassel, is worn very generally by men and boys. 
These latter are often bright eyed, interesting little 
fellows, though some of them acquire the universal 
habit of smoking at a very early age. 

The women look exceedingly strange to me. 
They are closely veiled with the exception of their 
eyes, the lower part of the face being completely 
concealed with the '■'-yas mah " or veil. They wear 
a loose hanging robe, usually of a bright crimson, 
or yellow color, with immense sleeves, flowing trow- 
sers confined at the ankles, and sandals on their feet, 
sometimes with yellow kid boots, and sandals over 
them. The dress of the ladies of rank is exceedingly 
elaborate with embroideries of gold and silver, and 
often of precious stones, on the richest and most bril- 
liant fabrics. In the Tiarem, the foi^htdden^ the women 
and children's apartment, the trowsers are fastened 
just below the knee, and, being very long, fall over 


in ample folds to the carpet. They are of brilliant 
silks and elaborately embroidered down the outside. 
Here let me say that the word harem is a sacred 
word to the Mohammedan and has nothing of the 
meaning attributed to it by foreigners, solely from 
the fact of polygamy which is condemned in Christ- 
ian countries. We must not forget, however, that it 
is sanctioned by the morals and by the religion of 
the East ; and however false, is looked upon by the 
people with the same respect with which we regard 
our monogamous system. 

There are still some of the Circassian women to be 
seen, many of them justifying their great fame for 

We find aristocracy here as well as elsewhere. 
The Kibars come riding through the streets gener- 
ally on horseback with a retinue of servants^ one or 
two running ahead to tell the common people to 
get out of the way, others following their master 
carrying his overcoat, umbrella, and packages. 
Such are the street scenes which are presented to 
us in Constantinople. 


At night all is still except the barking of the dogs, 
and the cry of " Yangun var " fire ! fire ! Fires are 
very frequent, one or two almost every night, as the 
buildings, being built of. "wood, form an easy prey 
to the flames. 



E HAYE seen Abdul Aziz, the monarcli of 
Turkey. There is nothing striking in his 
Sp appearance. Heisof medium height, very 
dark complexion, black hair, and dull 
heavy eyes. He wore the red fez and a neatly fit- 
ting suit of black. 

This man's word is the law of the Turkish em- 
pire, and woe be to him who incurs his displeasure. 
His salutations are cold and calculated to intimidate 
those around him. He has several palaces on the 
Bosphorus where he spends most of his time. We 
were shown one of them, very elegantly fitted up, 
and told that it was built by the Viceroy of Egypt 
and presented to the Sultan. After some difficulty 
\V3 obtained a permit to visit the Seraglio. This 
palace was the residence of the former Sultan, but is 



not mucli used by tlie present one. Entering tlie 
Sublime Porte and crossing an open court we found 
ourselves in a large square surrounded with build- 
ings. Going from one to the other the "DaZ/Ze" 
points out the uses of the various buildings. In one 
is shown the throne room, in another the private 
apartments of the Sultan where his wives are never 
allowed to enter. A large building is set apart ex- 
pressly for the residence of his wives and young 
children, which is of course called the liarem ; 
another for his slaves and servants. There is an 
attempt to imitate in the structure and decorations 
the palaces of Western Europe, but they fail in 
richness and in the taste displayed in the embellish- 

The Sultan generally attends service in one of 
the mosques on Friday, which is the Mohammedan 

The Mosque of St. Sophia is the most noted of 
all the mosques in the city, although in attractive- 
ness it is much inferior to that of Suleiman 
the Magnificent, or the Mosque of Sultan Achmed. 


We were compelled to leave our shoes at the 
door before entering, as the Mohammedans con- 
sider it sacrilegious to walk into their places of 
worship with boots or shoes on their feet ; there- 
fore no one is allowed to go in without conforming 
to this custom, which recalls forcibly the injunction 
in the Jewish ScrijDture : " Take thy shoes from off 
thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy 
ground." The Imam or Mohammedan priest leads 
the service, while scattered around upon the floor 
of the mosque, which is covered with a kind of reed 
matting, are many of the devout worshipers, all 
with their faces to the east — toward Mecca. Some 
are bent forward with their foreheads touching the 
floor, others are upon their knees with the Koran 
before them. 

The service is silent, and impressive — not a sound 
save the low chant of the Imam which is heard 
at intervals. At morning, noon and night, they are 
called to this service by the muezzin^ who is ap- 
pointed to go up into the minaret and call out the 
hour of prayer. In a shrill and mournful voice 




that can be heard far over the city, he sings out 
'''Allah cikhar'' '' Allah aUar '' &c., "God is great. 
There is no God, but God, and Mahomet is his 
prophet. Come to prayer. Prayer is better 
than work. Prayer is better than sleep." 
Instantly hundreds leave their shops, or what- 
ever they may be doing, and going to the 
marble fountains around the mosques, bathe 
their faces and hands before going into prayer. I 
was much impressed with their devotedness. The 
Mohammedans seem to be a poor degraded peo- 
ple, but they are sincere in their religion ; and 
Christians may well learn the lesson of sincerity 
from them. I saw many who could not leave their 
place of business at the hour of prayer go through 
with their devotions in their shojDS, in sight of the 
people who were going along the street. Persons 
would try to attract the attention of the devotee by 
throwing down gold pieces, but the mussulman 
would pay no attention to any one until he had 
finished his devotions. I do not think that 
business men in Christians countries get down 
upon their knees and say their prayers in the mid- 


die of tlie day, especially when customers stand 
ready to buy goods, jingling gold and silver in 
their hearing. 

This afternoon we went to see the Whirling Der- 
vishes, and a whirling it was indeed ! everything 
seemed to whirl the rest of the day. These people 
are a curious religious sect of Mohammedans. 
There were no seats for us save upon the matting on 
the floor. A venerable looking man with a robe 
wrapped around him came walking slowly in and 
took his position on a rug in the centre of the mos- 
que. One and then another followed until between 
twenty and thirty were all formed in a circle within a 
railing where only the dervishes are admitted. 
There they assumed a kneeling position with their 
heads bent forward. At a signal from the Patriarch 
they all arose and commenced moving with a slow 
march around the circle keeping time to some dole- 
ful music ; on their heads they wore high felt hats. 
Doffing a light drab cloak, revealing a dress of 
white, they commenced a rotary motion. The 
white gowns floated out until each Dervish was 



more the shape of a pyramid than anything else. 
Daring this motion their hands are placed on their 
breast, then on their heads, and when full speed 
is attained, they were stretched out, the right hand 
with the palm turned upward, the left turned 
downward, and their eyes closed. In this position 
they continued whirling for nearly a half an hour, 
when throwing their cloaks about them one after 
another they slowly left the room and the strange 
service was ended. 



EFORE leaving Constantinople the American 

^y minister and his wife and the American 
"W^m consul came on board our steamer. They 
were much pleased to meet so many of 
their own country people. 

Sailing by the Sultan's palaces and through the 
beautiful Bosphorus across the Black Sea to ex- 
plore the battle-fields of the Crimea, Sebastopol 
with all its ruins lies before us. We all anticipated 
being delayed by the authorities at Sebastopol be- 
fore we could land, as we had been informed that 
very likely they would not permit us to go ashore, 
at least that our passports would be subjected to a 
long and careful inspection. How different was 
our reception ! As soon as it was known that an 
American steamer had arrived, word was sent from 


the Admiral of the Sebastopol Navy Yard to Cap- 
tain Duncan, asking if he could be of any service to 
us ; that his navy yard was at our service if our 
steamer required any repairs ; and instead of the 
passports being subjected to the closest scrutiny, 
many of us were not asked even to show them. 

A number of Russian ladies and gentlemen came 
on board during our stay. They were sociable and 
quite gratified to go over the excursion ship. 

It was not long before the Quaker City people 
were on shore. A more perfect picture of desola- 
tion can hardly be imagined. Almost every buil- 
ding in Sebastopol bore marks of the terrible strug- 
gle between the Allies and the Russians. Heaps 
of cannon-balls were lying around. On the battle- 
field of Inkerman and around the Malakoff scarcely 
one stone is left upon another. Great furrows are 
still to be seen where the shot and shell ploughed 
through the earth, and at a short distance from Se- 
bastopol, acres are covered with the tombs of the 
slain. In one place not far from the Redan, we saw 
a trench where three thousand French soldiers sleep 


their last sleep. It brought yiviclly to our minds 
the scene of Sir Colin Campbell and the "thin red 
line'' of his Highlanders at Balaklava, the famous 
charge of the light brigade, the French troops like 
spectators in an amphitheatre, looking quietly on as 
the exclamation burst from the lips of their com- 
mander, " C^est un spectacle mai's ce oi'est pas la 
guerre ! " Pieces of cannon and shell lie strewn 
over the ground, and all of the immense fortifications 
remain in the same shattered condition as when the 
war closed. I believe it was one of the terms of 
settlement of the Crimean war that the Russians 
should not build up these fortifications again. At 
the head of the harbor of Sebastopol is the village 
of Inkerman, at the foot of a high hill which 
is crowned by massive ruins of walls and towers 
showing the former importance of the town. 
Numerous artificial caves are made in the flanks of 
the hill, being hewn from the solid rock. " The 
rock cut church of Inkerman" is one of the wonders 
of the place. It is said that the caves were made 
by the persecuted Arians and occupied subsequent- 


ly by Christian cenobites. Remains of chapels, al- 
tars, and paintings are found in them. 

In returning from the Malakoff to the vessel, we 
came to a little church out of which came a Greek 
funeral procession^ bearing the corpse of a beauti- 
ful young woman. The priest walked ahead car- 
rying a lighted lamp and chanting. The body was 
carried by ten or twelve young ladies, each one as- 
sisting in her turn as pall-bearer, as though it was 
an honor to be permitted to take part in conveying 
the body to its burial place. 

Following promiscuously were the friends and 
relatives exhibiting deep grief Flowers were 
strewn upon the cofi&n and the face of the corpse 
was exposed, so that all might see the features as 
she was borne along towards the little open grave 
in a lonely valley. After the simple burial service 
of the Greek church was performed, she was low- 
ered to her final resting place. 

How solemn was the scene ! Little did the 
mourners know there were sympathizers with them 
though from a far distant land. 

At Sebastopol the programme of our route was 


changed and we steamed up into the northwest cor- 
ner of the Black Sea to the Russian city of Odessa. 
' We are informed by the Odessians that the Qua- 
ker City is the first American steamer that was ever 
in their harbor. This city has an industrious appear- 
ance; Large quantities of grain are shipped from 
Odessa to various ports of Europe. The streets 
are wide and paved with white soft stone which 
produces a fine dust- kept in continual circulation, 
as there is a strong breeze blowing from off the sea. 
The trees, houses, and people are covered with the 
dust. We were informed that during the wet sea- 
son the mud is equally objectionable. 

Here we see in the market place, for the first 
time in our journey, the inhabitants buying and 
drinking oil, coming with pails and bottles to pur- 
chase it. What kind of oil it was we were not anx- 
ious to inquire ; it was enough to know the people 
drank it. 

On the corners of the streets sitting by small ta- 
bles are Jewish money changers, beckoning all 
to come and change their money. 

i w,ilJ).:iP« ,,,„. ™,j,„„., %,,, :aife^-n,.Mi|iiili|!|||||i 



We rode around the elevated city in a quaint 
looking carriage called a droskj. It is a low built 
comical looking yekicle witli four small wheels. 
The horse is fastened to one side of a long pole by 
which the drosky is drawn. The horse's gear is 
very odd. Its peculiarity is a lofty bow that arches 
the horse's neck, and when he is going very rapidly, 
it gives one the idea that he is trying to jump 
through a hoop. 


At the Arsenal and parade .ground was a regi- 
ment of Russian soldiers drilling. Their uniform is 
neat and showy. They all wear white caps. 

On the promenade there is a fine statue of the 
Due de Richelieu — according to tourists and guides 
the grand nephew of the famous cardinal.^ Chron- 


ologically, a grand nephew is just equivalent to a 
grandson ; and as there have been six generations 
since the time of the great cardinal, it is useless to 
call the original of this statue who died in 1822, the 
grand nephew of Richelieu. . The relationship 
about which tourists dispute is this: The Odessa 
Due de Richelieu was the grandson of the grand 
nephew of the cardinal. The great cardinal's 
sister had a son who died leaving his son the Mar- 
shal de Richelieu. This Marshal de Richelieu, who 
died in 1788, was the grandfather of the statue's 
original, who so distinguished himself in the Turk- 
ish war that the Empress Catharine of Russia made 
him a major general in her service. After the war 
he went back to France, but returned and was ap- 
pointed governor of Odessa. 

Returning to our steamer we find quite a commo- 
tion amono; the Pilmms. It has been decided to 
visit the Emperor and Empress of all the Russias, 
who are staying at their summer palace at Yalta, 
on the shore of the Black Sea, about two hundred 
and sixty miles from here. The preliminaries have 
been arranged by telegraph, and to-morrow we leave 
to call upon their Imperial Highnesses. 



N the way from Odessa to Yalta, several 
meetings were held by the gentlemen in 
the saloon for' the purpose of preparing an 
address to be presented to the Czar ; at the 
same time the ladies were gathered in groups con- 
versing about the coming event. 

This morning we dropped anchor at Yalta. The 
Governor-general conveyed to us a message from 
the Emperor " that we were welcome, and he would 
be pleased to receive us the next day at twelve 
o'clock." Word also came that carriages and horses 
would be in readiness to convey the party to the 
palace, which is about two miles from the landing 

All is astir on board preparing for the great oc- 


casion. The porters are overtaxed in getting out 
the stored away trunks for the passengers, as the 
most reclierclie wardrobes must be selected. The 
ladies' purchases through Europe are now brought 
in requisition. Paris dresses, laces, coiffures and 
jewelry are to be worn for the first time. At ten 
and a half o'clock we saw the spacious row boats be- 
longing to the Emperor nearing our ship. How 
gaily they were decked out with scarlet and black 
figured cushions and scarlet cloth and fringe hang- 
ing over the sides almost touching the water ; each 
boat was rowed by twelve men dressed in white 
caps and uniform. They approach the vessel's side 
with extreme caution, owing to a heavy sea which 
was rolling in. As the boat would rise upon a 
wave and sink away, one person after another step- 
ped in until it was filled, when another boat would 
take its place. In this way all were safely landed. 
We step from the boat on crimson carpeted steps 
leading up from the water into a picturesque cano- 
pied landing. The ladies occupying the carriages. 


and the gentlemen riding on horseback we formed 
quite a procession, numbering over sixty persons. 

The gates were thrown open to admit us to the 
palace grounds. A company of mounted Cossacks 
were drawn up on each side of the gates, and we 
passed through in military order, escorted by the 
Grand Duke Michael, brother of the Emperor, who 
had met us on the way. 

At precisely twelve o'clock we formed in front of 
the palace. The smoothly cut lawn around us was 
like a velvet carpet, with a profusion of surround- 
ing flowers. Immediately the Emperor and Em- 
press appeared, accompanied by their daughter 
Marie, and one of their sons, the Grand Duke Serge, 
followed by a retinue of distinguished persons. 

The American Consul who had come with us 
from Odessa stepped forward and read a short ad- 
dress to his Imperial Highness Alexander 11. , Czar 
of Russia, which had been prepared and signed by 
the passengers. The Emperor replied to it by say- 
ing " that he thanked us for the address and was 

very much pleased to meet us, especially as such 


friendly relations exist between Russia and the Uni- 
ted States." The Empress further replied by saying 
" that Americans were favorites in Russia, and she 
hoped her people were the same with Americans." 

The Emperor is tall and well-proportioned, with 
a mild yet firm expression. The impression of the 
beholder is that he is one born to command. 
He wore a white cap and a white linen suit, the 
coat confined with a belt around the waist and 
ornamented with gilt buttons and elaborate epau- 

The Empress is of medium height, fair complexion, 
and although delicate looking she appears young 
for one of her age. A bright, welcoming smile lit 
up her face. Her dress was white foulard silk, 
dotted with blue and richly trimmed with blue 
satin. She wore a small sleeveless jacket of the 
same material and trimming, a broad blue sash, and 
around her neck was a tie made of swiss muslin and 
Valenciennes lace. On her head was a straw hat 
trimmed with blue velvet and black lace. Hei 
hands were covered with flesh-colored kid-gloves, 


and she carried a light drab parasol lined with blue 

The Grand Duchess was attired in a dress of 
similar material to that of her mother, only this 
was more tastefully arranged with blue silk and 
fringe ; a belt of the same material as the dress, 
fastened by a large rosette, and a straw hat trimmed 
with blue silk. 

The Grand Duke Serge is quite young, and a 
.well-appearing youth. He was dressed in a scarlet 
blouse and white pants. 

Individual introductions followed. Several of 
the ladies, including myself, had an opportunity of 
conversing with the Empress. All of the Imperial 
family speak English very well. 

We were escorted through the buildings by the 
Emperor and Empress, entering a door which was 
on either side a bower of flowers. Almost all of 
the apartments were thrown open. The floors 
were inlaid and polished, and the furniture was 
curious and costly. 'The Emperor took special 
pains to show us the chapel where he and his family 


worship. It was very handsome, and connected 
with the main building. 

Every effort was made by the Imperial family to 
welcome us, and really the Pilgrims seemed to act 
as much at home as though they were accustomed 
to calling on Emperors every day. 

I could not realize that we were being enter- 
tained by a ruler of more than seventy -five millions 
of people, and whose word was the supreme law 
fof the most powerful nation on the globe. 



^^^HE name of the Emperor's palace is Livadia. 

"^^•^ It is very beautifully situated on the side of 
a mountain gently sloping toward the Black 

V^ Sea. 

The grounds have been expensively laid out, and 
near the palace are gardens filled with choice flow- 

The Imperial family generally remain here dur- 
ing the months of July and August. Near by 
stands the palace of Worrondow, belonging to the 
crown Prince, who is very wealthy; we were 
kindly escorted through his residence, which is 
nearly as elegant as Livadia. An invitation has 
been tendered us from the Emperor's brother, say- 
ing that he would be pleased to see us at Orianda, 
his palace, which is between one and two miles 


from where we are. Driving througli the grounds, 
which are delightfully adorned with large groves of 
trees, gardens, vineyards, fountains and cascades, 
we arrive at the Palace of the Grand Duke Michael, 
governor-general of Circassia, who also resides at 
Yalta with his family during the summer months. 

The balcony is filled with handsomely dressed 
ladies, watching our approach. The Grand Duke 
and Duchess at once appeared. He is even taller 
than the Emperor, and stately in his carriage. He 
wore a uniform of azure cloth with silver decora- 
tions. The Grand Duchess is young, has a dark 
complexion and is quite handsome, lively, and socia- 
ble. Her dress consisted of white alapaca en train, 
trimmed profusely with black barb lace, a drab hat, 
with velvet and feathers of the same color. The 
Emperor and family arrived here about the same 
time with our company. The party now dispersed 
in various directions through the parks and gar- 
dens accompanied by the different nobles attached 
to the Imperial family. 

The Grand Duchess showed us her favorite little 


rloc:, which she informed me had been so much ad- 
mired by Qiieeu Victoria that she had sent one like 
it to Her Majesty. 

The children of the Grand Duke were playing 
under the trees, with soldiers guarding them. We 
were told they are never allowed, when out playing 
to be out of sight of the guard. 

At three o'clock we were invited into the palace 
to "breakfast."* In a splendid saloon opening on 
a veranda our party were soon seated around many 
polished round tables on which the refreshments 
were served. The different tables were honored 
from time to time by the presence of royalty. 
While his Imperial highness was seated at our table, 
the conversation turned upon the Ottoman Empire. 

Mr. G • made the remark, "that he thought, ere 

many years would pass away, Russia would become 
the possessor of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles." 
A smile played across the countenance of His High- 
ness as he nodded assent and intimated that such a 
thing was not at all improbable. 

The Grand Duchess now appeared at the breakfast 

188 ^^^ STAY AT YALT^ 

richly attired in purple silk with sati\l trimmiuga 
sometimes walking along the great banqueting 
room, and sometimes upon the veranda. 

The reception being over, the Imperial party 
took their positions at one end of the long saloon 
to bid each one of the visitors adieu as we with- 
drew. Scarcely had we returned to our floating 
home before bouquets of flowers were sent on board 
from the Emperor's gardens, to be presented to 
each lady. 

The next day our steamer was put in complete 
order. The velvet sofas were brought on deck, the 
saloon was dressed with flowers, and all had a cheer- 
ful look. 

We were visited by a large number of the Russian 
nobility, among them Admiral Glassnap, Admiral of 
the Black Sea navy ; Governor General Kotzebue, 
and his two daughters ; the venerable general Todle- 
ben of Crimean fame ; Baron Sternberg, Count Fos- 
tetus. Baron Wrangel, and other distinguished Rus- 
sian gentlemen and ladies. A collation was served 
in the saloon, at which speeches were made and 
congratulations freely interchanged. 


lu the evening, the Quaker City was illuminated 
and displayed fireworks in honor of the occasion. 

The next day the Admiral invited us on board of 
the Emperor's yacht Tiger which was anchored off 
the palace. 

We were heartily received on board the yacht. 
Ever thing was scrupulously neat and there were 
many rooms elegantly furnished. In the Czar's 
private room were the pictures of the Imperial 
family, including a correct likeness of himself The 
company were here entertained with refreshments. 
The ladies were offered cigarettes, as many of the 
Russian ladies smoke. It is their custom at enter- 
tainments to offer cigarettes to the ladies. 

The third day we anticipated a call from the Em- 
peror, but a heavy sea made it difficult for the small 
boats to go to and fro between the steamer and 
land and His Im^Dcrial Highness did not care to trust 
himself in them ; so we had to forego the honor. 

At eight o'clock in the evening the anchor was 
lifted, and we sailed by the Czar's palace, which 
was brilliantly lighted, and amid the booming ofean- 


non, the shooting of rockets, and blue lights il- 
luminating our ship, we bid farewell to a scene 
which I shall treasure as one of the brightest remem- 
brances of my life. 



'GAIN the prow of our steamer is pointed 
across the Black sea toward the Bosphorus. 
This morning I was awakened early, as 
we were .approaching the city of Constan- 
tine. Hastening on deck I found but few of the 
passengers up. I had the opportunity of seeing 
the sun rise upon the city of Constantinople. Ap- 
proaching the city from the Bosphorug a much finer 
view is afforded than from the sea of Marmora. 

The sun was just rising and as its golden light 
touched crescent, minaret, dome, tower, and cypress 
as with some enchanter's wand, the city was trans- 
formed into a vast sea of flashing lights, and the 
scene was one of matchless and indescribable beauty 
which well repaid me for my early rising. 

1^2 SMYRNA. 

Here we are to remain for several days, until we 
are thoroughly acquainted with the Mohammedan 


More bargains are made with the Osmmlis for 
slippers, chibouks, narghilles, turbans, Turkish tow- 
els, beads, and a liberal supply of ottar of roses, 
which of course is warranted to be genuine. Some 
of the Pilgrims now begin to dress in Oriental 
style. We sail every day in the caiques upon the 
Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. 

Once more on the sea of Marmora ; through the 
Dardanelles where swam 

" Leancler who was nightly wont 
To cross thy stream broad Hellespont." 

We sail alon^ the coast of Asia Minor in sight of the 
place where stood the city of ancient Troy, where 
Trojan and Hector battled for the beautiful Helen. 
We pass the islands of Tenedos and Mytilene, the lat- 
ter of which was one of the most powerful of all the 
Grecian islands, and said to be the birthplace of Sap 
pho. Steaming up the gulf of Smyrna, it was ten 


SMYRNA. 195 

o'clock in the forenoon when we came in sight of the 
citj. With the aid of our glasses we could see on 
the shore of the gulf long caravans of camels going 
into the city. 

In the harbor lay the United States gunboat 
Swatara, and as we sailed close along side they 
saluted our flag and ran up the stars and stripes. 
At the same time her crew sprang up the shrouds 
and gave us three cheers. I realized at that 
moment how dear to me were the stars and stripes, 
emblem of my own loved country. It was like 
meeting an old friend in that distant country. 

Smyrna is built around the base of a mountain 
which is crowned by a ruined castle. It is the 
largest sea port in Asia Minor ; the streets are nar- 
row and crowded with people, donkeys, and camels. 
It has its bazaars and mosques. We are soon on 
shore and wandering through the city, dodging here 
and there to escape the caravans which are moving 
through almost every street, loaded with figs, rai- 
sins, and various products of Asia. 

In one of the ^g packing establishments we saw 



over three hundred bushels of figs, ready for pack- 
ing. In one of the rooms were nearly a hundred 
people, men, women, and children, packing the figs. 
The women, even at their work, were closely veiled, 
excepting their eyes. The proprietor pointed out 
a Turkish man and woman at work side by side. 


They were husband and wife, and he informed us 
that although they had been working for him 
twelve years, he had never seen the face of the 

SMYRNA. 197 

woman. Her husband would never allow the veil 
to be removed in public. • 

The bazaars are not as large as the ones in Con- 
stantinople, but they are well stocked with oriental 
goods. Heaps of Persian rugs are seen, some of 
them handsome and valuable. There is a large 
trade in them here, -and they are brought from the 
interior of the country by the caravans. On every 
hand are Turks, sitting cross-legged sipping, 
coffee, and smoking the narghille. This smoking .^ 
and coffee drinking seems to be the most important 
business in the eastern cities. It is an old saying 
that '' the first four wishes of a Turk are, resfc, 
silence, pipes, and coffee." 

Here it is supposed Homer was born, and here 
also was the residence of the Apostle John. The 
site of the church of Smyrna, one of the seven 
churches of Asia, is pointed out. Alas \ Ephesus, 
Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, 
and Laodicea — thy greatness is with "the dream 
of things that were." 

Some of the country mosques in Asia Minor are 

298 SMYRNA. 

exceedingly beautiful and tliougli small in size are 
elegant in design and finisli. The mosque is every- 
where substantially the same in plan, being square 
and surmounted by a dome. The first mosque, 
erected at Medina by the prophet himself, has 
served as a model for all that have been built since, 
thousrh the minaret seems to have been an after- 


thought of the time of the Caliph El Walid. 

We constantly meet the Pilgrims scattered over 
the city seated around shops, drinking coffee and 
lemonade, eating figs and dates, and enjoying 
themselves generally. 

To-morrow we leave for Ephesus. 



RAILROAD has been built by an English 
Mb company, running from Smyrna sixty 
miles back into the country, for the pur- 
pose of bringing into the city the various 
products of Asia, which are brought to the different 
stations by caravans. This road runs within three 
miles of Ephesus. Arrangements have been made 
with the president of the company to convey our 
party by special train to Ayasalouk, the nearest 
station to Ephesus. At five o'clock in the morning 
we leave the steamer and are soon in the cars. 
Large droves of camels, horses, and goats were 
grazing in the fields along the way, and almost 
every native was armed. It was not unusual to see 
a man with two pistols, two knives in his belt, and 

a gun resting across his shoulder. 


We were in cliarge of a tall jet black Nubian, 
who was heavily armed and dressed in a showy 
eastern costume. He walked up and down, and 
gave his orders like one who was invested with 
high authority, and seemed to look upon us as 
much inferior to himself 

From Ayasalouk we rode on donkeys to the 
ruins. Crossing a level tract and over a high hill 
we descended upon the plain of Ephesus. Nothing 
is to be seen of that once splendid and powerful 
city but a vast desolate plain of ruins. The Thea- 
tre of Ephesus, where Paul preached, and where 
Demetrius the silver-smith addressed the multitude, 
when they all with one accord cried out ''great is 
Diana of the Ephesians," is first inspected. It was 
built of pure white marble. The seats are almost 
perfect, although covered with earth. It is in the 
form of an amphitheatre, and would seat many 
thousand people. A space two or three feet wide 
of the earth has recently been removed, revealing 
from the foundation to the top, a distance of nearly 
two hundred feet, the white marble seats in perfect 


In the ruins of one of the Temples we saw beau- 
tifully carved pillars, thirty to forty feet in length, 
ten to fifteen feet in diameter, lying broken, their 
fragments scattered upon the ground, as though 
some earthquake had hurled them from their foun- 
dations. ' 

The best preserved structure is a beautiful mos- 
que, built in the fourteenth century, over the grave 
of St. John, and on the site of the church of Ephe- 
sus. No one could tell us where the Temple of 
Diana had stood — not a stone to mark the spot. 

We gathered in the amphitheatre where it is sup- 
posed Paul fought with the wild beasts, and our 
artist Mr. J , photographed the scene. 

The Aqueduct, which was nine miles in length, 
could be traced for a long distance by the lofty and 
massive marble columns on which it rested. History 
tells us that in the days when these ancient cities 
were built, oftentimes as much money was expend- 
ed upon the construction of the aqueducts as it re- 
quired to build the cities themselves. 

The cave of the Seven Sleepers, the tomb of 


Mary Magdalen, the hill of Pion were all explored. 
High upon a rocky hill stood the " Prison of Paul," 
built of mammoth blocks of gray ston^e. Climbing 
up its rugged sides a few of us seated ourselves and 
listened to the reading of Paul's imprisonment. 
There spread out upon the vast plain below was 
all that remained of that once mighty city ! Its 
ships which brought the treasures of the world to 
its doors are all gone and its harbor is sealed up. 
The voices of the Ephesians are hushed forever and 
the only sign of life that we can see amid its ruins., 
is a lonely shepherd crossing the valley and calling 
his sheep to follow him. We remained for a long 
time deeply interested in the picture before us. 
As we were preparing to descend from the moun- 
tain prison, Colonel K handed to each one 

a cup of wine, accompanied with the remark that 
it was not likely any of us would ever meet there 



1 0-DAY is Sunday, and we listen to a good 
sermon from the Rev. Mr. B — , one of the 
excursionists. Every sabbath services are 
held on our steamer. 
Again in the Grecian Archipelago, the islands of 
Scio, Samos, Patmos, and Rhodes come in sight. 
On the highest point of the island of Patmos, we 
can see the convent built over the cave where St. 
John wrote the Revelations. These islands were 
once rich and powerful, but since the Turks have 
ruled them their prosperity has vanished. 

Running along by the Isle of Cyprus, we ob- 
served many large towns on the hills. 

Busy preparations are being made for Syrian 
travel as we are fast nearing Syria. The company 
will divide into small parties, some wishing to 


take one course througli tlie Holj Land, and some 
another. A few will leave the ship at Beyrout for 
Damascus, and journey southward from there. A 
part of the company will land at Mount Carmel, and 
cross to the sea of Galilee from that point. Others 
will enter Palestine at Jafia. 

As the weather is very warm, dresses, veils, and 
hats must be arranged. White prevails as it affords 
the best protection against the sun's heat. 

On the morning of September the tenth, we 
awoke at Beyrout and saw the sun rising over the 
mountains of Lebanon. The dawn promised a 
bright and perfect day. We are to remain here 
several days to complete the preparations for the 
inland journey. The American consul and the mis- 
sionaries are very attentive and very courteous in 
furnishing needed information and introducing drag- 
omen. Our party numbering eleven here " secured 
a trusty Arab guide. He was a native of Syria, 
speaking different languages, and was thoroughly 
conversant with the country. An agreement 
was drawn up and signed at the Consulate, spec- 


ifying liow many servants, horses, donkeys, and 
tents were to be furnished, and the price to be paid 
per day. 

While we remain here, the missionaries come out 
to call upon us, among them is Dr. Thompson, au- 
thor of the "Land and the Book," who has resided 
in the East almost fifty years. 

The American seminary is located at Beyrout. 
The scholars were brought to see our ship, which 
they enjoyed very much. K-efreshments were fur- 
nished them. They were well behaved and intel- 
ligent. The missionary having charge of the schol- 
ars informed us that many of the native children 
make excellent students and learn rapidly. 

The young ladies could speak English very accu- 
rately. A New Testament, translated into the 
Arabic language and prettily bound, was presented 
to each passenger. All the work of printing and 
binding being executed by native Syrians. 

According to the statements made, the mission- 
aries are doing much good, not only at Beyrout, but 
at the branches on Lebanon, Damascus, and Sidon. 


This evening while seated upon deck, as if by 
magic, tlie city and surrounding country are illu- 
minated with bonfires, along the shore of the Med- 
iterranean as far as the eye can reach. From every 
hill-top of Lebanon fires spring up, until night is 
turned into day. This is called the " Feast of the 
Cross,'* and to night it is celebrated by the Maron- 
ites. When the '' True Cross" was found in Jerusa- 
lem by the Princess Helena, mother of Constantine, 
the nevfs was telegraphed all the. way to Constanti- 
nople by lighting fires on the hills. This celebration 
has been continued once a year, from A. D. 330, or 
thereabout, until the present time. 

This morning we visit an Arab school ; the mas- 
ter sits in the center of the room, with the scholars 
around him. They sit upon the floor and each 
scholar has a large card before him with Arabic 
characters on it. Every one was talking, creating 
such confusion and noise that I was glad to retreat. 
It vras the loudest studying I have ever heard. 
Their severe punishment is the bastinado, inflicted 


on the soles of the feet. This is a common Mussul- 
man practice. 

The climate here in Beyrout is healthy, and fruits 
are plentiful. The night before sailing for Jaffa 


was one long to be remembered. The moon came 
over Lebanon and cast its silver light upon the 
smooth waters of the Mediterranean. I lingered 
long thinking how far I was from my own native 
land and the loved ones at home. 



OMER is ready with the horses at half past 
six o'clock in the morning. After some de- 
'^^^) lay in selecting such horses as each wishes 
^^^ to ride, we gallop along the streets of Bey- 
rout, out through groves of pines and hedges of 
prickly pear. 

Here we meet a common incident of Syrian travel. 
A Turk goes leisurely by mounted upon a donkey, 
his feet swinging and almost touching the ground, 
smoking meanwhile a long pipe. Some distance 
in the rear followed his wife on foot, with two chil- 
dren in her arms and a large bundle fastened upon 
her back. The women do most of the laborious 
work while the men are idle. 

A short distance further we saw " two women 


grinding at a mill." The mill was composed of 
two large stones, one rolling npon the other ; one 
of the women was tending the mill, while her com- 
panion was driving the ox. It is probable that not 
much improvement has been made in these mills 
since the days of Solomon. 

Large orchards of oranges, pomegranates, figs, 
and dates appear on every side. Crossing the dry 
bed of the Wady Kadislia^ we enter a vast plain of 
olive trees. 

At the foot of Lebanon is a manufactory, where 
a number of Ara,bs are employed making silk. 

The ride up the mountains is difficult, since the path 
is narrow and rocky. The same day we reached 
the Convent of Lebanon. This was a Jewish church 
before the time of Christ, but for several hundred 
years it has been occupied by Greek monks. 

The Convents in the East afford comfortable ac- 
commodations for travelers. They are necessary 
unless the traveler has his own tents and conven- 
iences for camping out when night overtakes him. 
The old monks cordially received us and soon pro- 


vided siicli refresliments as tliej could. We were 
in need of rest and, felt thankful for tlieir attention. 
We are informed tliat an Egyptian family are re- 
siding on tlie mountain for tlie summer, near to the 
convent, and that they are coming to see us. Present- 
ly the door opened, and a beautiful Arab lady ac- 
companied by her husband and three little girls en- 
tered. She was a brunette, gracefully attired in 
white with a crimson silk girdle tied at her side ; 
her hair fell loosely about her neck and shoulders, 
and was adorned with pink and white roses. Her 
jewels were composed of diamonds and gold. They 
had come to invite us to their home, and we ac- 
cepted the cordial invitation. Soon after entering 
their house, we were asked to sit down, when I found 
myself instinctively looking for a chair or sofa, for- 
getting that I was in the East. Our party, now 
numbering five, were soon seated upon the floor 
with the family, and servants brought in quick suc- 
cession figs, grapes, jellies, and pomegranates 
sprinkled with rose water ; then followed coffee, and 
afterwards for the gentlemen, narghilles, which com- 






. ^>^ 



pleted the Oriental picture. Through an inter- 
preter, meanwhile, the conversation went forward. 

Our hosts were deeply interested in hearing from 
our country. They wished to know how the peo- 
ple lived and how the houses looked ; what kind 
of fruits and trees grew in America, and whether 
we had schools and cities ; all which information 
we readily gave them. 

The repast being ended, two servants came bear- 
ing dishes of water and napkins. One poured the 
water upon our hands while the other held the basin 

The lady, our hostess, desired me to go to her 
apartments. They were furnished with divans, 
and seating ourselves upon one of them she inform- 
ed me that her native place was Egypt, but owing 
to delicate health, she came to the mountains of 
Lebanon with her family to remain during the heat- 
ed season. Her little daughters were bright and 
intelligent. At their mother's request they sang 
very prettily the hymn commencing " I love Jesus," 
which they had learned of the missionaries. This 


performance greatly pleased tlie motlier as well as 

She asked me my name, and in return said her's 
was Mariam, and taking a heavy gold bracelet of 
Oriental style from her arm she placed it upon mine, 
saying, " This will make us sisters." At parting 
she lifted her hand to her forehead and then plac- 
ins: it on her heart bade me an affectionate fare- 
well. We then returned to the convent and mount- 
ed our horses. Descending the mountain, for along 
time we could look back and see the monks watch- 
ing us and waving adieu, also Mariam's white dress 
fluttering in the breeze. We returned to Beyrout 
by the Damascus road which has been built by 
the French. On this road a diligence runs daily 
between the two cities. Damascus, so frequently 
mentioned in the Bible, is one of the oldest -cities 
in the world, and is still one of the richest of the 
East. It is the rallying point of all the northern 
Asia pilgrims to Mecca and the center of Syrian 
commerce. The population is said to comprise 130,- 
000 Mohammedans, 15,000 Christians, and about 
5000 Jews. 


Beyrout, or Beirout, is quite a flourishing seaport 
containing, witli the suburbs, about 30,000 people. 
The modern city was built by Djezzar Pasha. It is 
situated on a plain behind which rise the moun- 
tains of Lebanon. The houses are substantially 
built of stone, and the flat roofs surrounded by par- 
apets form a very important part. Here, after the 
heat of the day, the people resort for the cool 
air, conversation, or the pipe. Sleeping on the 
house-tops is common in the summer all over the 
East, the sleepers being protected from the dews 
by awnings. 



)EOM Bejrout our course lies south along 
.^^ the coast of Sidon, now called Saida, and 
the once splendid city of Tyre, (so graphi- 
cally described in the twenty -seventh chap- 
ter of Ezekiel,) stopping at Haifa at the foot of 
Mount Carmel. On the summit of the Mount 
stands the convent of Elijah, built upon the place 
where Elijah stood when he prayed for rain, and the 
cloud " no larger than a man's hand " rose out of 
the Mediterranean. Across the bay we could see 
the Turkish city of Acre which was once the me- 
tropolis of the Latin Christians. Here Napoleon 
was defeated in the year 1799, and with his defeat 
he resigned the hope of conquering Syria. 
Sailing around Cape Carmel the same afternoon, the 
ruins of ancient Caesarea came in sight. This city 
was built by Herod the Great. It is the place where 

JAFFA. 217 

Paul was imprisoned and brought before Agrippa 
and Festus to speak in liis own defence. His 
words made such an impression upon Agrippa, 
that he said to Paul: " almost thou persuadest me 
to be a Christian." This is the city where so many 
of the Jewish captives were brought from Jerusa- 
lem, and thrown into the amphitheatre to be dc: 
stroyed by the wild beasts. The place is solitary, and 
desolate. The fragments of its marble pillars, 
towers, and walls lie strewn along the shore, half- 
buried in the sand, or washed by the continual 
waves of the sea. 

The sun is slowly sinking in the west, and remem- 
brances of my Sabbath school days hover around 
me as I look upon the shores of Palestine. I 
am about to realize what I had never expected — 
the sight of the places where Christ and the disci- 
ples walked and conversed together, and where the 
prophets and the patriarchs lived. I am reluctantly 
compelled to go below to finish packing for the 
journey, as I shall require thick and thin clothing. 

Most of the ladies are busy getting ready. The 

218 JAFFA. 

saddles are brought out, for each lady has provided 
her own, there being no comfortable lady's saddle 
to be purchased or hired in Syria. 

At daylight we are at anchor about two miles 
off the harbor of Jaffa, with a long procession of 
Arab boats coming to take passengers and baggage 
on shore. While tradition tells us that the harbor 
of Jaffa, is the most ancient in the world, I must say 
that I think it about the poorest. Josephus de- 
scribes it as follows : " Now Joppa is not naturally a 
haven, for it ends in a rough shore where all the 
rest of it is straight; but the two ends bend towards 
each other, where there are deep precipices and 
great stones that jut out into the sea, and where the 
chains with which Andromeda was bound have left 
their footsteps which attest to the antiquity of that 
fable ; but the north wind opposes and beats upon the 
shore and dashes mighty waves against the rocks 
which receive them and render the haven danger- 

Our captain informs us that it is not safe for his 
steamer to lie nearer than about two miles from the 

JAFFA. 219 

shore ; and steam is constantly kept up in readiness to 
run out to sea at any moment should a storm rise. 

The usual course of pilgrims visiting the Holy 
Land is to come from Egypt and land at Jaffa ; 
but whenever there is a storm they cannot go ashore 
there, but are obliged to disembark at Mount Car- 
mel, or Beyrout. As we neared the shore in the 
small boat a white line of surf extended along the 
whole front of the city, but by skillful management 
our boat was guided over the rocks on a wave and 
we landed free from harm, although well sprinkled 
by the spray. 

A crowd of Arabs are jostling and crowding to 
be employed as servants or guides, each one point- 
ing to himself and crying "• bono " (good), others 
already asking for haksMsli. 

There is not much to delay us in Jaffa. We see 
the house of " Simon the Tanner." It is supposed 
that Noah built his ark here. This was also the 
harbor where " Hiram, King of Tyre" landed the 
cedars of Lebanon for the temple, afterward con- 
veying them on camels to Jerusalem. 

220 JAFFA. 

The "Upper Chamber" is here shown where 
Peter called the good Tabitha to life. 

Jaffa is built upon a hill surrounded by a wall. 
The dwellings are constructed of stone and are 
square in form with flat roofs. The streets are nar- 
now and not very clean. The women are strangely 
dressed. A dark colored cloak is thrown over their 
heads falling to their feet. A piece of black cloth 
hangs from beneath their eyes tapering to a point 
below their chin, or sometimes falling to the knees. 
This forms a kind of mask and is ornamented 
with gold coins. Some of the women who do not 
wear them have theu" faces tatooed, and wear gold 
rings fastened through the upper or under lip. 
They have JcJwl about their eyes, and stain their 
finger nails with henna, all of which they consider 
an addition to their charms. 

The only ingress or egress to the city from the 
land side, is through a fortified gate. Outside of 
the wall is a large open space filled with natives 
trading. Caravans are getting ready for Jerusa- 
lem, or the desert, and camels are kneeling to re- 
ceive their burdens. 


JAFFA. 221 

Our first call was upon the Jaffa colony which 
we found in a poor condition. A few uncompleted 
houses were clustered together in which the colon- 
ists lived. They were heartily sick of the enter- 
prise and wished themselves back to America. It 
was no place for New England people to settle. 

The soil is not very productive, being sandy and 
the climate warm. How one hundred and thirty 
Americans could have been induced to leave their 
homes and go to that place to live, believing they 
were going to an earthly paradise, is certainly a 



UR Dragoman informs ns that he is ready 
for starting. Nijem, for that was his name, 
is one of the most intelligent of Syrian drag- 
omen, and conversant with various lan- 
guages. It has been his business for many years to 
conduct pilgrims through the country. He has 
therefore become familiar with the history and loca- 
tion of every place of interest. 

He is dressed in the full Arab costume, with mil- 
itary belt, sword hanging at his side and gun strap- 
ped across his shoulder, presenting quite a war-like 

There have been provided for our company of 
eleven persons, four tents, fourteen servants or as- 




sistant dragomen, and twenty-six horses and don- 
keys loaded with the necessary equipage for the 
journey. This is the form of our agreement with 
the Dragoman. 

Consulate General of the United States of Amer- 
ica. Agreement between .... of the first 
, part and .... dragoman of the other part 
said . . . . dragoman for the consideration here- 
inafter mentioned, doth hereby agree : 

First : To serve said .... as dragoman 

for a period of weeks, beginning 

. . . . and ending .... and for as 
many additional days or weeks as may be desired 
by the parties of the first part. 

Second : To conduct them from Jaffa through 
the Holy Land. Yisiting successively Ramleh, Je- 
rusalem, Hebron, Bethlehem, Mar Saba, Kedron, 
Dead Sea, River Jordan, Jericho, Bethany, Bethel, 
Shiloh, Jacob's well, Nablous, Samaria, and return 
to Jaffa, stopping at night at convenient and com- 
fortable places. 


Tliird : To furnisli tents, bedding, food, riding 
and baggage animals, saddles, and the necessary ser- 
vices subject to the approval of the parties of the 
first part. To pay all haksliisli to guides, sheiks, es- 
corts, servants, and in general, to do every thing 
which is in my power to minister to the comfort and 
satisfaction of the parties of the first part, during the 
continuance of this agreement. 

Fourth : In consideration whereof, said parties 
of the first part hereby agree to pay to the said 

. . . . dragoman .... sterling per 
day for the period of ... . weeks, and at the 
same rate for such additional days as may be here- 
after agreed upon. 

Fifth : It is understood by both parties, that in 
case of any failure on the part of said dragoman to 
furnish every thing required by the foregoing 
agreement, these may be supplied by said parties 
of the first part at the expense of said dragoman 
of the other part, and that any disagreement arising 
out of a breach of this contract shall be submitted 


for final settlement to tlie nearest Consul of tlie 

United States. 

S. M. G. ") 

B. H. C. VFor the Company. 
G. H. 


:^. ^ .^Y> 


H. E. T. 

Acting United States Consul General 

. The ladies are privileged to make the first selec- 
tion of horses. All being ready our caravan starts 
from Jaffa on our way to Jerusalem, traveling 
through a forest of ^g^ orange, pomegranate, and 
palm trees. 

The road is lined with hedges of the cactus plant, 
full of the red fruit, and here and there we pass a 
sycamore. The dark foliage of the pomegranate 
contrasts beautifully with its deep crimson fruit. 
The orange groves are loaded with delicious fruit, 
and the air is filled with the perfume of their bios- 


soms. In about half an hour we came to a Sara- 
cenic fountain where a number of camels were 

Eiding out upon the plains of Sharon, the purple 
hills of Judea and Benjamin rise before us. The de- 
clining sun warns us that night is approaching. In 
the distance stands the dark Saracenic tower of 
Ramleh, and hastening on, at twilight we are riding 
through the streets of Ramleh, the birth-place of 
Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, and where 
Christ rested for a short time on his return from 
Egypt. On the east side just out of the city, we 
found our camp pitched and every thing made 
ready for our arrival, as the muleteers and baggage 
had prieceeded us. The Arab cook was preparing our 
meal over a fire in front of the camp. In one of the 
tents a table is placed, on which an excellent sup- . 
per is spread, which is much relished after our fa- 
tiguing ride. The ladies' tent was surmounted 
with a dome, giving it a lofty appearance, while 
flowers and leaves cut out from red, yellow, 
and green colored cloths were sewed on the inside. 


producing a finished and tasty effect. It is carpet- 
ed with Persian rugs. Small iron bedsteads stand 
around in a circle, looking neat and comfortable. 
This is our first night of camp life in Syria, and we 
are surprised to see how complete the arrangements 
are made for the comfort of the Pilgrims. I retired 
to rest to dream of Jerusalem and Bethlehem which 
I am soon to see. 




T daylight in the morning we are awakened 
I by mournful wailing sounds around our 
^{(^ tents. Hastening outside we find that Ni- 
j em has pitched the camp near to a Turkish 
burying place, and there are several women wan- 
dering among the graves. They are hired mourn- 
ers who come every morning at daylight to wail. 
They are employed for this duty by the friends of 
the departed. Some of these mourners command a 
higher price than others. The amount paid them 
is regulated by their ability to wail and mourn. 
They wear tear bottles fastened under their eyes in 
such a manner as to catch the falling tears. They 
will weep fast or slow as the occasion may require, 
or the price justify. All this seemed a very foolish 
and barbarous custom ; but when we reflect that 


the practice of hiring mutes for funerals is still con- 
tinued in London and in some other Christian com- 
munities, we ought to have charity for these ignorant 
Mohammedans. Dickens and some other English 
writers have so satirized the custom in England that 
it is beginning to decline. 

It is a clear and balmy morning and we mount our 
horses and ride over the plain of Arimathea. On 
the left is ancient Lydda, where Eneas was healed 
by Peter, and where St. George the patron saint of 
England was born. We soon pass an Arab town 
called Jimzu. Here a large number of oxen were 
treading out grain, which is the eastern mode of 

The heat is intense and I find my white um- 
brella, hat and veil, affording valuable protection 
from the sun's rays. At noon we reach the hill 
country of Judea, but before commencing the ascent 
of the mountain we rest for a while under a fig tree 
well filled with fruit. Here Nijem spreads our din- 
ner on a clean white cloth on the ground, around 
which we remain for some time eating and talking. 


Now and then the fresh figs would fall from the 
tree upon our picnic table. 

Near by was a small hut with a roof of old cloth, 
and bushes under which a number of Arabs were 
sitting and smoking. They would come and look 
at us in silence, then go away. After the intense 
noonday heat was past, we commenced the journey 
up the bed of Wady Suleiman between high rocks, 
continually meeting camels loaded with heavy bur- 
dens, but moving patiently along without turning to 
the right or left. It was often with difficulty that 
we could prevent ourselves from being thrown 
from our horses when meeting these caravans. The 
second night our camp was pitched in the valley of 
Adjalon, near to an Arab village supposed to be 
the Emmaus of the Bible. This has been a restless 
night ; we heard guns fired at short intervals during 

the night. At two o'clock Mrs. Dr. G waked us, 

and we find the breakfast preparing. Around the 
fires are seated a number of wild looking men, who 
had come from the village to demand of Nijem 
hakshish for camping near their town. Each one 


was armed witli a long gun, and had a striped 
blanket thrown over his shoulders. 

We ate our breakfast by candle-light, and the 
early morning revealed to us Mount Gibeon to the 
north-east. We are truly on ground made memor- 
able by sacred events. Yonder stood Joshua 
when he commanded the sun and moon to stand 
stillj while down through this valley swept the 
Philistines to destruction. We soon cross the 
stream from which David selected the stone with 
which he slew Goliah. 

After passing a couple of villages situated in 
deep valleys surrounded with orange and pome- 
granate trees, we ride over the last mountain, and 
there before us stood the walls, domes, towers, 
minarets, and the great dome of the mosque of 
Omar towering over everything else. 

We are in sight of Jerusalem. 



BELIEVE it is the testimony of almost all 
pilgrims that they are peculiarly affected at 
Iw?^ the first sight of the Holy City, 
^r Some years ago when Francis Joseph, Em- 
peror of Austria, approached the city he dismounted 
and kissed the soil, at the same time remarking that 
he stood on holy ground. 

When the army of the Crusaders, after repeated 
defeats and long and fatiguing marches, at last 
came over the mountains in sight of Jerusalem, the 
whole army as with one voice burst forth into song. 
I felt that I could remain for hours where I was, 
before riding within its walls. There stands clear 
cut against the sky the city which has formed so 
conspicuous an object in the world's history. It is 
regarded with affection by the Jews, because David 


and Solomon reigned there. The Mohammedans 
call it the " blessed city " for there lived Mahomet 
and Omar. We love the name of Jerusalem and 
call it the "Holy City" because in and around 
it occurred most of the scenes in the life and death 
of our Savior. It has been taken and retaken 
many times during the most terrible struggles. It 
has been conquered by the King of Babylon, Shis- 
hak, the king of Egypt, by Antiochus and after- 
wards by Pompey, Sosius, Herod, Titus, and Omar ; 
consequently it has been occupied by the Egyptians, 
Assyrians, Jews, Romans, Persians, Christians and 
Mohammedans. During the siege of the Romans 
when Titus almost destroyed the city, there 
perished one million ; and one hundred thousand 
besides these the Romans carried away to Rome, and 
Ceserea ninety seven thousand captives, it is said, 
who were thrown into the amphitheatre and de- 
stroyed by wild beasts, making nearly one million 
and a quarter slain by that one war. Later, when 
the Crusaders under Godfrey De Bouillon took Jeru- 
salem, almost eighty thousand Moslems were slain 


in and around the Mosque of Omar. When we 
think that the meaning of the word Jerusalem is 
"the habitation of peace," the name seems singu- 
larly inappropriate. 

I cannot realize that I am looking upon the city 
where all this has transpired. Nijem has hurried 
on beyond the great Russian convent and we find 
our camp pitched on the north side of the city, just 
outside the wall, midway between the Damascus 
and Jaffa gates. 

Jerusalem is built upon a high hill, or mountain 
with deep valleys all around it, excepting on the 
north side. It is surrounded by a high and strong- 
wall in which are ^yq; gates, four of which are 
now used. The Damascus gate on the north side ; 
St. Stephens on the east ; and on the west the Jaffa 
gate ; the southern or Zion gate is on the south 

All of these gates are thrown open in the morn- 
ing and closed at night. Each one is guarded by 
Moslem soldiers who compel us to hand to them 


every parcel, and if it contains anything of value, a 
duty is required. 

The, city is about three-quarters of a mile in 
width by one and three-quarters in length. It is 
l)ounded by the valleys of Kedron and Jehoshaphat, 
and the Mount of Olives, village and pool of Siloam^ 
Yalley of Hinnom, Potter's field, Hill of Evil Council, 
and the Valley of Gihon. The country around has 
a barren and rocky appearance, with here and there 
clusters of ancient looking olive trees. Along the 
road leading to the gates are Arab women carrying 
baskets on their heads, filled with chickens, eggs, 
and grapes. Camels and donkeys are bearing 
heavy loads in and out 'of the city. By the road 
side sit miserable looking fellalieen asking alms, 
while among them are the Lepers. 



EELTNG mucli fatigued after my journey, we 
^|jSf enter by tlie Damascus gate and stop at the 

Damascus Hotel; tliere are only two here, 
the Damascus and the Mediterranean. Up 
a narrow flight of stairs into an open court or stone 
paved hall, we are shown into a large square room 
with cemented floor, furnished plainly, but in Eu- 
ropean style. The walls are high, with niches in 
them, and there is one double window iron barred. 
The apartment is not very cheerful looking, but Ave 
shall soon become accustomed to it as we are to re- 
main here several days. 

This is a calm and bright morning as we go out to 
explore the city. The*streets are narrow and filled 
with Jews, Arabs, Turks, Armenians, Copts, Syri- 
ans, and Greeks. The houses are massive and 


gloomy, often arching across the street. They are 
square, and generally have domes on the top for 
the purpose of keeping the upper rooms cool. Un- 
der the houses are large stone cisterns which hold 
the water, as it rains here only during three months 
of the year. The water which we used at the hotel 
had been in the cistern six months, yet it was cool 
and sweet. Along the streets are Turkish shops, 
and there is a large bazaar where considerable trad- 
ing is carried on. Quite a business is done in mak- 
ins: and selling: curiosities from the olive wood — 
.paper cutters, beads, rulers, canes, boxes, and cups 
made of it, are offered in almost every street. 

We first visit the church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
Walking under an archway into a large open court 
we are before one of the most ancient Christian 
structures in the world. It is an immense building, 
divided into several chapels, owned and used for 
worship by the Greeks, Armenians, Latins, Syrians, 
and Copts, as they cannot agree to worship togeth- 
er. The church is filled with crowds of people, 
priests, beggars, and pilgrims from many distant 


lands. Inside of tlie entrance is a smooth stone 
slab ; this is pointed out by our guide as being the 
stone on which the body of Christ was prepared 
for the sepulchre. Turning to the left, the place is 
marked where the Marys stood to witness the cruci- 
fixion. Going through the Greek chapel, which is 
the richest of all the chapels, up a winding stair- 
w^ay, we stand upon a large rock, said to be the top 
of Mount Calvary. Here is an altar very tastefully 
arranged with flowers and lights, and over the altar 
hangs a very beautiful picture of the Virgin Mary 
and child, with an inscription formed with diamonds. 

Returning to the body of the church, we find the 
different worshipers thronging. toward the sepul- 

While they cannot agree to worship in the same 
room, they are willing to go through with their 
devotions under one roof, and I noticed that once 
during the ceremonies they all visited the tomb of 
Christ. What a beautiful thought, that whatever 
our differences may be, we can all meet around the 
tomb of the Savior. 



Under the dome is a small chapel supported by 
sixteen marble columns. The first room is six by 
ten feet. Here is the stone on which the angel sat 
that announced the glad tidings of the resurrection. 
From there we passed into the inner chamber, or 
holy sepulchre. It is about six feet square. On 
one side is a heavy stone sarcophagus, three feet in 
height. In this the body of Christ lay. The tomb 
is covered with a white marble slab, and over it 
hang forty solid gold and silver lamps, which have 
been kept burning night and day for hundreds of 
years. At one end stands a monk chanting and 
sprinkling perfumed water over the tomb. Here 
Christ burst the bonds of death and came forth to 
redeem a lost and sinful world. To this spot the 
nobility of all nations have come to bathe its cold 
stone with their tears, and I could not but feel the 
power and truth of the story of the christian reli- 
gion. Some travelers have disputed about the 
location of the tomb of Christ, placing it a few feet 
this way or that. It made but little difference with 



my feelings; I knew I was standing near the place 
where my Savior died, and was buried. 

The half hour spent here has more than re- 
warded me for all the trouble of my pilgrimage. 

J;'^f <^ 




HE principal occupation of the people ap- 
pears to be worshiping and performing 
TfeS- some ceremony in a church, tomb, mosque, 
or convent. 

The first thing I remember seeing when ap- 
proaching the city was a procession of nuns, dressed 
in white, marching from the Jaffa gate down into 
the valley of Gihon. 

Every religious sect in Europe, and the East, ap- 
parently, take pride in being represented by a place 
of worship. A great amount of money is sent here 
for that purpose. The French catholics have re- 
cently bought a site near Pilate's house, and they 
are erecting an expensive building to be used as a 
catholic school. 


The Armenians have a convent covering a large 
space of ground. It will accommodate three 
thousand pilgrims. The church within the convent 
is finished in mosaic, and contains the tomb of St. 

The Russian church, which is the Greek, has 
recently erected a convent on the north side of the 
city, outside of the wall, covering several acres, and 
costing an immense amount of money. All this, 
together with pilgrims continually coming bring- 
quite a revenue to the Holy City. 

The protestant religion has the smallest repre- 
sentation here of all the religious sects. There is 
but one small chapel, which is denominated Christ 
Church, and supported by a London society. 
There are one or two protestant missionaries usually 
residing here, one of whom called upon us at the 

From St. Stephen's gate, where stood the Tower 
of Antonio, is a street named the Yia -Dolorosa, 
leading up to mount Calvary and the church of the 
Holy Sepulchre. This is the way Christ was led to 


crucifixion. It passes Pilate's house, Ecce Homo 
Arch, on which the Redeemer stood with Pilate 
when the people cried out " Crucify Him ! Crucify 
Him ! " and the Judgment Hall, which is now used 
for Turkish barracks. 

Priests, monks, and nuns are constantly walking 
up and down the Via Dolorosa, chanting prayers. 
Just outside of the north wall of the temple area, 
is the Pool of Bethesda. It is a large excavation, 
containing a pool of stagnant water. 

There are over two hundred Lepers still in Jeru- 
salem. They live in wretched huts grouped in the 
south part of the city, called the Lepers' Quarters. 
They are allowed to marry among themselves, and 
sit along the highways and beg of the passers by, 
but are forbidden to have any further intercourse 
with the people. 

The town house of Caiphas, where Christ was 
confined the night before the crucifixion, and the 
tower of Hippicus built by Herod th^ Great, still 
retain their former massiveness, but show signs of 
great antiquity. From the top of the Tower of 


Hippiciis a gun is fired morning and evening, which 
is a signal for opening and closing the gates of the 
city. Near by are the tombs of David and Solo- 
mon. Over them is a Turkish mosque, containing 
the " Upper Room" where the Last Supper was 
eaten, and where the disciples were gathered on the 
day of Pentecost. 

All day long, old Jews and Jewesses are wander- 
ing about these tombs. We are told that for over 
six hundred years no Jew or Christian has ever 
been allowed to enter the tombs of these great 
kings, excepting in one instance, about thirty years 
ao'o, when a Jew banker of London, and his wife, 
were permitted by the sultan to descend, and look 
through a grating, to see the tombs of David and 
Solomon, for which privilege the banker paid a 
large sum of money. 

One of the most touching scenes which I have 
witnessed here is the wailing of the Jews, at the 
"Jews' Wailing Place." It is outside of the west 
wall of the temple area. They believe this wall hat 
never been destroyed, but is the identical one which 


Solomon built. It is composed of enormous blocks 
of stone, showing the Jewish bevel, which attests 
its antiquity. As the Jews are not allowed to enter 
the temple enclosure, they come here to wail. Go- 
ing there one afternoon, we found nearly a hundred 
Jews, some on their knees, others bent forward, 
' with books before them, wailing for the loss of their 
temple, city, and kingdom. The stones are worn 
smooth with their kisses. They come from all parts 
of the world to their revered city, to lay their bones 
near their great ancestors. The proprietor of the 
Damascus hotel informed us that within the last 
three years several thousand Jews have come to 
Jerusalem. They believe that the final judgment 
of the world will take place here. When we re- 
turned to the sea coast we met a large company of 
old Jews going up to Jerusalem to die. 

On the west side of the city, across the valley of 

Grihon, stands a structure capable of accomodating 

hundreds of persons. This is called the Jews' Hos- 

• pital, and has been erected by wealthy Israelites in 

Europe. If these people who live here have prop- 


erty of value the authorities take it from them, and 
as they are always idle they have no visible means 
of support, and whatever they have of value they 
secrete. It is thought that the Jews know of im- 
mense treasures hid in the caves under Jerusalem, 
from which many of them derive their support. 
Their history has been one of sorrow and suffering 
in the East since they were conquered by the Ro- 
mans. During the reign of Adrian they were driven 
from Palestine altogether. Under the rule of Con- 
stantine they were allowed to come on to the 
mountains about Jerusalem, and look into the city : 
but if a Jew was found within its walls he was in- 
stantly put to death. Truly, they have been scat- 
tered over the earth, and their holy house despoiled. 




EARLY one quarter of the space within the 
walls of Jerusalem is occupied by the Tem- 
ple Area. 

It is only within a few years that any 
but Mohammedans have been permitted to enter the 
enclosure. We had to wait two days before we 
could get a finnan^ or written permission to visit 
it. We were charged for the permit a sum of 
money, and were accompanied by a mussulman 
guard, who faithfully watched to see that we did 
not pollute the place by touching with our fingers 
anything inside the walls. Excepting Mecca, this is 
the most sacred place on the earth to the Mohamme- 

In the center of the inclosure stands the Mosque 
of Omar crowned with a lofty dome, which is the 


most conspicuous object, seen from nny direction in 
whicH you approach the city. The mosque stands 
upon the top of Mount Moriah. Here is the thresh- 
ing floor, which was purchased by David for fifty 
shekels of silver, also the Holy of Holies of Solo- 
mon's Temple. The interior of the mosque is 
most elegant, and around the sides are written 
selections from the Koran. 

In the center is a rock called Es Sukhrali^ on 
which it is supposed Abraham offered up his son 
Isaac. It is surrounded by a high railing. De- 
scending several stone steps we come to a cave 
directly under the rock. For the purpose of enter- 
ing this cave once the devoted followers of Mahomet 
will come thousands of miles, for there they stand 
where their great prophet once stood. They say 
that the night after his flight from Mecca to Jeru- 
salem he rested in this cave. They also be- 
lieve that the prayers which they ofier up here 
will surely be answered. Near the Mosque is a 
marble fountain, at which one of our company stop- 
ped to drink, when instantly one of the Moslem 



soldiers sprang forwai'd with drawn cutlass as if to 
strike down the christian who would dare commit 
such a sacrilege in the holy place. 

In the southern part of the Area stands another 
massive building called the mosque of El Ahsa. 
This is very ancient looking. Some of the 
foundation of this mosque, is without doubt built 
from the ruins of the Temple. Here is an entrance 
to a subterranean passage-way. Going down several 
steps we came to a vaulted chamber supported by 
arches and keystones, evidently of great age. The 
blocks of stone are of wonderous size and probably 
date back to the time of Solomon. This may have 
been one of the passages of the Temple. Explora- 
tions are going forward by the French and English, 
and if funds can be supplied, there is no doubt that 
much more of the plan of ancient Jerusalem and the 
Temple will be revealed. 

Returning to the mosque of El Ahsa we observed 

the curiously carved pulpit from which Mahomet 

preached. Adjoining are two smoothly polished 

pillars standing over thirty feet in height. The 

2^0 '^^^ TEMPLE. 

Mohammedaus assured us that Maliomet once pas- 
sed between them, and all who follow his example 
will loose their sins. For this purpose the Moslems 
will undergo a long pilgrimage, and untold depriv- 
ations. The pillars stand near together, making it 
difficult for any one to go between them. Of course 
we were anxious to be rid of our sins, and conse- 
quently made some exertions to accomplish the 
feat. We all passed between the columns, save the 
venerable Major, who is quite portly. He made 
several attempts, being assisted by the Pilgrims, and 
at one time he became so wedged in between the 
pillars that considerable anxiety was felt for his 
safety. He was finally extricated and gave up the 
effort in despair. It was a favorite pleasantry, for 
some time after, that the Major was the only sinner 
left of the company. 

Not far from this mosque are to be seen the rem- 
nants of the bridge which led from the Temple to 
Mount Zion, on which St)lomon walked with the 


august Queen who was visiting him, and who ex- 
claimed as he pointed out to her the glory and 
splendor of his holy habitation, " The half had not 
been told." 



AST night I was aroused from my slumber 
^ji^^lJ, by an Oriental marriage procession passing 
tSf bejieatli my window. The bride was 
W^ being borne to the house of the groom, 
-amid the shouts and songs of her friends. 

The marriages are generally contracted by the 
parents of the bride and groom. If the parties are 
wealthy a large sum of money is paid to the parents 
of the bride by the groom, which is invested in 
costly jewels to be worn by her. These become 
absolutely her property, and thus remain through 
her life. The jewels can never be taken by law to 
pay the husband's debts, neither has he the power 
to dispose of them. 

When the day arrives for the wedding ceremony, 


or Kikeah^ to take place, tlie invited guests assem- 
ble at the residence of the bride who is dressed 
in white and brought out of her home. Sometimes 
she is seated upon a platform which is carried upon 
the shoulders of her friends amid great rejoicing, 
through the streets to the house of the groom 
where she is met by him at the door and led into 
the Harem, when the veil is removed from her face, 
and often this is the first time he beholds the face 
of his wife. 

In company with our hostess to-day, I have visited 
a wealthy Turkish family. We went on horseback, 

Mrs. T , riding her own white Arabian pony. 

As our horses hoofs rattle over the rough cobble 
stone pavement of the streets of Jerusalem, it is ne- 
cessary for us to hold the animals with a tight rein 
to prevent them from stumbling ; for in many 
places the stones are worn quite smooth. The ser- 
vant had gone in advance to announce our coming. 

We were met by the ladies of the house, at the 
door of the Harem, where three pairs of sandals in- 
laid with pearl were standing. 


There was no particular ceremony of introduction, 
further than the information that I was a hidy from 
America. This is Oriental etiquette. The ladies 
were dressed in flowing robes, silk girdles, full 
trowsers, and fancy turbans. 

We were ushered into the ladies private apart- 
ments, the floor of which was white cement, polished 
to shine like marble. The windows were incased in 
fine lattices, in such a manner that the inmate cannot 
be seen while the passer-by is fully visible. On 
three sides of the room were divans covered with 
pink silk and lace. Being seated, a Nubian woman 
brouo'ht Sherbet — a kind of lemonade — flavored 
with rose ; after this, coffee in small china cups set 
in zerfs^ or stands of gold which were exquisite, 

" And Mocha's berry, from Arabia, pure, 
In small fine china cups, came in at last ; 
Gold cups of filigree, made to secure 
The hand from burning, underneath them placed." 

Then followed cigarettes, which the ladies folded 


It pleased thein exeeedingly wlien I iuformed 
tliein that although I did not smoke, I would take 
-the cigarettes home with me as a souvenir of the 
pleasant visit. Upon this they wrapped them in 
white silk and presented them. 

The inspection of my garments was next in order. 
These they examined thoroughly, even to the but- 
tons on my dress, and were much interested in 
trying on my gloves. They then brought forth 
their wardrobe of rich silk gauze and Persian stuffs, 
embroidered with gold tinsel. They wished to robe 
me in them, but I had them bestow the compliment 

upon my friend Mrs. T . They showed us 

through the rooms of the establishment and also 
took us on the top of the house, which had a stone 
parapet six or seven feet high running around the 
the edge. Through this wall were holes to enable 
the women to look through. 

They were unremitting in their attention. 
After the ceremony of leave taking, which is sim- 
lar to the meeting, we bade them good-by. 


One of tlie characteristics of tlie East is hos- 
pitality, and there is no lack of social polite- 

We returned by the way of the Bazaar. 



i^N making the circuit of Jerusalem outside 
the walls, we start from the Damascus erate 
^?%^ toward the east. Going a distance of 
*^^ eight or ten rods, we come to the entrance 
of the caves under the city, whose existence had 
been unknown to the world for many centuries, 
until some years since a missionary in making ex- 
plorations around the city discovered them by 
means of his dog. Having procured our guide and 
torches we crept upon our hands and knees through 
a small opening under the walls, and gradually de- 
scending over two hundred feet, we find ourselves 
in a room of great height and width, chiseled out 
of the rock. Pursuing a downward course, pres- 
ently we come to another cave still larger. Here 
are huge blocks of stone lying upon the ground. 


otliers in the sides hewn and almost rea-dy to fall, just 
as the workmen left them, thousands of years ago. 
It is thought that here Solomon obtained much of 
the material for the building of the Temple ; a be- 
lief which has been much strengthened by the 
recent discovery of a passage leading down from 
the temple area to the caves below. Probably, 
during the terrible sieges of Jerusalem in ancient 
times, the women and children have found a refuge 
in these subterranean vaults. Another theory of 
historians is, that immense treasures have been 
secreted by the early nations in these vast caves. 
In one stands a large pool of water, into which we 
throw a stone and hear the hollow 'echo reverbe- 
rating through the dismal chambers for many 
seconds. We find the place damp and disagreeable, 
and we are glad to return to the sunlight and fresh 

To the northeast of the city are the tombs where 
were buried the Jewish Sanhedrim and the ancient 
Kings. The Sanhedrim was the highest judicial 
and legislative body of the Jews. It was composed 


of seventy members, and they met daily, witli the 
exception of Saturday, in the "hewn stone cham- 
ber" of the Temple. Napoleon I. convened a san- 
hedrim of seventy-one members in 1807 in Paris, 
for the purpose of regulating Jewish affairs in 

With lighted tapers we explored these empty 
vaults and receptacles for the dead. Silence and 
darkness prevailed. . 

Turning around the northeast corner of the wall 
and going southward, we reach St. Stephen's gate, 
from which a rocky path leads down into the valley 
of Jehoshaphat and across the brook Kedron to the 
Garden of Gethsemane. It is surrounded by a 
high stone wall. Knocking at an iron door, the 
only entrance, we are received by a Latin monk, 
who guides us around the garden. Within the en- 
closure are beds of flowers and several ancient olive 

It was here that our Savior was betrayed and 
spent the hours of agony. I could not gaze upon 
the spot 


"Witliout high thoughts and solemn, of that scene 
When, in the Garden, the Redeemer prayed — 
When pale stars looked upon his fainting head." 

The monk gave me a bouquet of flowers, which 
he had plucked in the garden. I shall press, and 
treasure them, as one of the most valuable souve- 
nirs of my journeyings. 

Close by is another walled inclosure, to mark the 
pla^e where the disciples slept. A short distance 
to the north is a low flat stone building. We cross 
an open court and. go down thirty to forty steps, 
and are in the Tomb of the Virgin Mary. Different 
colored lights are suspended from the ceiling, and 
the interior is filled with clouds of burning incense. 
A long procession of priests, monks, and nuns are 
marching to and fro, with lighted candles. Mingling 
with the throng we are soon beside the tomb, which 
is at one end of the cave. It is of white marble, 
and over it are strewn white roses. We are told 
that once a week this service takes place, to com- 
memorate the hour Christ died upon the cross. 

Following the dry bed of the Kedron, down the 


valley, on the lef twe come to the Tombs of Jehosha- 
phat, Zechariah, and the Pillar of Absalom, all cut 
in the rock. This was the King's dale, and here 
Absalom erected this monument. A noticeable pe- 
culiarity is, that it is almost covered up with small 
pieces of stone thrown by the Jews. They have a 
custom of tossing a stone at it every time they pass, 
which is for the purpose of showing their contempt 
for Absalom's conduct toward his father David. 

We are now in the valley of Kedron. Turning to 
the right, by the village of Siloam, we stop to 
bathe our faces and drink of the clear, cool water 
of the Pool of Siloam. The maidens of Jerusalem 
are carrying the water from the spring in earthen 
jars upon their heads up to the city. It is indeed 
an ancient picture. 

To the west of the pool and south of the city, 
we cross the valley of Gehenna, or Hinnom. Here 
stood the statue of Moloch, into whose fiery furnace 
were cast the victims amid the shouts of its wor- 
shipers. God being displeased with their conduct, 
the prophet Jeremiah pronounced a curse upon the 


ground, saying, " It shall no more be called Tophet, 
or tlie Valley of the Son of Hinnom, but the Yalley 
of Slaughter, for they shall bury in Tophet till 
there be no place." During the Roman seige this 
prophecy was fulfilled by the burying in this valley 
of over one hundred thousand of the slain, until 
there was no more room. Here a fire was continu- 
ally kept burning to consume the refuse cast out 
from Jerusalem. No doubt Christ used as an illus- 
tration this valley, " Where the worm dieth not and 
the fire is not quenched." 

To the Southeast stands Potter's Field, the bury- 
ing place for strangers, and the Hill of Evil Coun- 
cil, on which the Jews formed their conspiracy 
against the Savior. The path leads around the 
base of Mount Zion to the Yalley of Gihon. In this 
valley on the west side of the city is the Pool of 
Gihon, where Solomon was crowned king over 
Israel, in place of his father David. 



•HIS clay is no exception to all the days of 
onr stay in Jerusalem, being extremely 
pleasant and tlie atmosphere unusually trans- 

Leaving the city through St. Stephen's gate our 
horses slowly pick their way along the rocky path 
across the valley of Jehoshaphat, over the Kedron 
bridge, and by the garden of Gethsemane, up the 
side of the mount of Olives, which is still dotted 
with olive trees. 

The olive is the most numerous of all the trees 
in Palestme and a most useful one to the inhabitants, 
who derive from it both light and food. It some- 
what resembles the willow and bears a small green 


fruit, which, as it ripens, becomes a purple color. 
This fruit is largely manufactured in the east into 
oil, which forms an important part of the sustenance 
of the people. Extensive orchards of these trees 
are to be found everywhere scattered through 

Reaching the summit of Olivet one of the finest 
panoramas in the Holy Land is before us. To the 
east are the mountains of Moab, the valley of the 
Jordan and the Dead Sea. To the north are the 
hills of Benjamin, and in the south Judea's lofty 
mountains are in view. 

Jerusalem lies at our feet on the west. Most of 
the sketches of Jerusalem are taken from this point. 
One cannot wonder that Jesus often resorted hither. 
Looking down upon the city how deep and tender 
must have been His feelings when He predicted the 
destruction of Jerusalem, " 0, Jerusalem ! Jerusa- 
lem ! how often would I have gathered thy children 
together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under 
her wings, and ye would not! " Here Christ for- 


told the last Judgment, and preached with such 
power to his disciples. 

The church of the Ascension, now a Turkish 
Mosque, crowns the hill. We are received at the 
door, and led to the place where tradition places 
Christ's ascension, though the Bible leads us to 
believe that it was further east, toward Bethany. 

Here David stood and wept over Jerusalem as 
he fled to the east of the Jordan crying, "0, Abso- 
lom! my son ! my son ! " 

Taking the road which leads around the southern 
crest of Olivet we continue our journey to Beth- 
any ; every place around us has been made sacred 
by the Savior. Along this path he rode in triumph 
while the people threw down palm branches before 
him. Across the valley to the south is the village 
where he sent the young man to untie the colt. 
Where our footsteps are treading frequently walk- 
ed Martha, Mary, and Lazarus, going and returning 
from Jerusalem. 

In less than an hour we reach Bethany situated on 

the Eastern slope of the Mount of Olives. It is now 


a desolate looking place, and a few low miserable 
huts inhabited by Arabs is all that remains of the 
once beautiful village, where Mary and Martha 
lived, and where Lazarus was raised from the dead. 
The ruins of a stone building are pointed out to us 
as being the very house of Mary. In the rear of a 
court attached to this house is a monk with a 
large key. Beckoning us to come where he stood, 
he iinlocked an iron door and we follow him down 
twenty-six stone steps to the tomb of Lazarus. It 
is a dark and damp place. An excavation in a 
heavy block of stone on one side of the .cave is said 
to be where the body of Lazarus lay. 

I may here remark that there is more or less 
skepticism travelers regarding the identity 
of many of the places pointed out in Palestine. 

There are some good reasons for these doubts, 
and yet when I behold how solid and enduring are 
all the structures which are composed entirely of 
rock and cement, I am inclined to believe that 
much is still remaining; as it stood eiirhteen centuries 

o o 

ago. It is enough for me to know that I nm walk- 


ing upon the ground and looking upon the identi- 
cal hills and valleys that Christ and his Disciples 
looked upon. 

Words cannot image forth the fervent emotions 
and impressions made upon mj heart by these 



roi ^T I JEM guides us across the plain of Repliaim 
-mmJW ^Q ii^Q convent of Mar Elias. In one Hour 
A^}, we halt by a square stone building crowned 
with a small dome, inside of which is the 
tomb of Rachel. " And Rachel died, and was buried 
in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem, and 
Jacob set a pillar upon her grave, that is the pillar 
of Rachel's grave unto this day." We lingered by 
the tomb of the lovely Rachel. Why was she 
buried in this lonely place, and not with her kin- 
dred at Hebron ? Bethlehem is now in sight, with 
the church of the Nativity distinctly visible. We 
enter the city through a heavy stone archway, and 
thread our way toward the spot where Christ was 
born, followed by a crowd of half-grown Arab boys 
and girls. Hitching our horses we are invited into 





I lii 




the convent attaclied to the church where " raki 
and jelly " are offered us. After this a Franciscan 
monk appeared with a large bunch of keys to con- 
duct us through the buildings. We are now in the 
oldest Christian church in the world, built by Helena 
the mother of Constantino. Through the Basilica 
of Helena, and the Greek chapel, we descend several 
steps behind the altar, and reach the Sacred Grotto 
or birth-place of the Redeemer. In the marble 
pavement is placed a large silver star to mark the 
spot. Around it is this inscription: ^'- Hie 
de Yirgine Maria Jesus Cliristus natus esV 
"Here Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin 
Mary." On the opposite side of the grotto is a 
marble manger where the original one stood. Most 
of the people approach upon their knees and kiss 
the silver star. Among them is our Dragoman, 
who thus reveals to us for the first time the fact that 
he is not a follower of Mahomet. As with the Holy 
Sepulchre, lamps of gold and silver are hanging, 
in which lights are continually burning night and 

Here was the stable where Joseph and Mary 
lodged, " there being no room in the inn." They 


had come to Bethleliem at a time wlien it was 
over crowded with the people, whom the Emperor 
had summoned there to pay their taxes. In this 
humble place the Child Jesus was born, who was to 
live but thirty-three years, yet whose life was to 
teach the way of salvation to the world. It cannot 
be other than interesting for the christian to' look 
upon this hallowed place. 

The altar of the Innocents, and the room where 
St. Jerome so long lived, are under the Church of 
the Nativity. Returning to the convent we find that 
the monks have prepared a comfortable meal which 
we partake of with much relish. 

Looking toward the east we see the plains of 
Bethlehem on which the shepherds were watching 
their flocks by night when the Star of Bethlehem 
appeared to them ; and as if to bring that scene 
more forcibly to our minds, we see the shepherds 
in the distance crossing the plain followed by flocks 
of sheep and goats. On those now dry and ver- 
dureless plains Huth gleaned her scanty harvest of 


It is three hours ride to Hebron where in the 
cave of Machpelah lie Sarah and Abraham, Leah 
and Jacob, Eebekah and Isaac side by side. Some 
of our company go down to the Pools of Solomon. 

After one more examination of the interior of the 
Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem, in the course of 
which an Arab school is exhibited which is attached 
to the convent, we return to our horses. Here is 
a motley crowd, some begging haksJnsh^ others 
endeavoring to sell us curiosities ; for an extensive 
business is carried on among the Bethlehemites who 
make various articles from the mother of pearl 
brought from the Red Sea, and offer them for 
sale to Pilgrims. We ride swiftly out of the city 
of David, and urge our horses over the shepherd's 
plain to Jerusalem. 

My Christmas days will ever be more precious as 
my thoughts revert back to Bethlehem, where 
Christmas had its birth. 



^r^^i^-^OT feeling very well for the past two or 
(^-tm three days, and the weather being warm, 
I have concluded that I will not go down 
to the Jordan and Dead Sea, but remain 

with our kind hostess. Mr. G will tell the 


Filing out of the east gate of Jerusalem, down 
into the Valley of Jehoshaphat, by the Garden of 
Gethsemane, and up the mount of Olives, we are 
soon at Bethany, where the slieiks who had been 
previously engaged in Jerusalem, and who were to 
act as our escort and guard to the Jordan country, 
came riding swiftly around the village to meet us. 
They were dressed in full Bedouin costume, with 
brilliant colored Damascus silk huryions^ or head- 

-:^ I 


& ft k\| f % % , 

t, 1 

nmmm idmi:' i . j:ii:iiiii,>?^^'''ilii' 


dress, fastened around their heads with a heavy silk 
cord. In their girdles were any number of pistols 
and knives, and each one carried a long firelock. 
They were mounted upon fine horses, and as they 
took their place at the head of our train they seem- 
ed possessed with the feeling that their position was 
one of infinite importance. 

Leaving Bethany, we descended the rocky sides 
of a mountain for a half an hour, until we came to 
a fountain called El Haud^ which is upon the an- 
cient dividing line between the land of Benjamin 
and Judah. 

As the sun had now risen high in the heavens, 
and shone with unusual fierceness, we remained 
for some time by El Saud^ where Nijem spread 
our lunch upon the ground in the cool shadow of a 
high rock. One must travel in the east to realize 
the blessing " of the shadow of a great rock in a 
weary land." Again in the saddle, we commenced 
a journey of seven long hours, through the most 
desolate tract of country it has ever been my lot to 
behold. Our path lay along the stony bed of some 

292 *" THE DEAD SEA. 

stream, tlirougli narrow defiles, over barren bills, 
and tlirougli deep gorges. We saw no sign of life 
except two eagles wliicli flew from a liigli cliff. One 
of the xVrab sheiks fired at them, but missed his 
aim. Thej calmly soared above us for a long time, 
as if curious to know for what reason we had in- 
vaded their domain. 

About half way down to Jericho are the remains 
of an old stone tower, indicating the traditional 
scene of the parable of the good Samaritan. This 
is the wilderness where John preached, and where 
Christ ''fasted forty days and forty nights." As 
our caravan moved over the last mountain before 
descending to the plains of Gilgal, the path lay 
close to the edge of a deep gorge, five hundred 
feet deep. Down in this is the brook Cherith. Near 
to the bottom of the precipice the sides of the 
rocks are perforated with holes or caves. It was 
in one of these that the Prophet Elijah lived when 
he vf as fed by the ravens during the terrible famine 
which then raged in Palestine. In later years we 
are told that monks who wish to seclude themselves 


from the ^Yorld, secrete tliemselves in tliese caves 
and end tlieir lives in loneliness. 

Descending upon tlie plain, we rode over tlie 
ruins of ancient Jericho. All that can be seen of 
that once mighty city is a small portion of the re- 
mains of the aqueduct. The wall around which 
the priests marched seven times, and blew the 
rams' horns, is level with the ground. The amphi- 
theatre, where the wicked Herod paraded himself 
dressed in his royal robes before the people, and 
the house of Rahab, where she concealed the spies 
from Israel, are no more. Turning to the north- 
ward, along the base of Quarantania, we halted by 
the fountain of Elisha. These waters, which were 
so bitter and poisonous before the prophet healed 
them, are now pure and wholesome. Driving the 
horses into the water, they were glad to take 
a long and refreshing draught after their wearisome 

Following our dragoman and sheiks over the 
plain, we pitched our camp near to a wretched 
Bedouin village, called Riha. At one • and a half 

294 ^^^ DEAD SEA. 

o'clock in the morning the camp is aroused and we 
move toward the Dead Sea. Traveling over 
crusted layers of sand for two long hours, just as 
the first rays of the morning sun came shooting up 
over the mountains of Moab, we reach the greatest 
natural wonder of the globe. All the stories of my 
youth about this sea came rushing vividly upon my 
mind. It is supposed to cover the plains where 
stood the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, being 
over four thousand feet below Jerusalem, and 
almost one thousand three hundred feet below the 
level of the sea. It is the lowest point on the 
earth's surface. The Jordan and other streams 
empty into it, but no outlet has ever been discov- 
ered. The fish that float down out of the Jordan 
as soon as they enter the Dead Sea die and come 
to the surface. The water is so dense that nothing 
can live in it. 

Stories are told by travelers, that birds flying 
over it die and drop into the water. Poets sing of 
the *' Dead Sea apple," which is fair to the eye, but 
as soon as it is taken into the hand crumbles to ashes. 


We are soon into tlie water, and find tliat we 
can recline upon it with tlie greatest ease. Even 
the hand or foot phmged down would be gently 
buoyed to the surface like a cork. It seemed like 
being upon a sea of glass, and the pebbly bottom 
could be seen far down through the crystal water. 
In a storm, the water rolls like oil, without splashing. 

As the sun arose, a more dreary waste could not 
be imagined. On both sides the sea is bounded by 
high walls of dull, grey, rugged mountains, and a 
tree or shrub of any kind cannot exist near its waters. 
As the sun rides over in the heavens, its reflection 
upon the water has the peculiar effect of changing 
the hue of the Dead Sea several times. We came 
out of the water with a slio^ht burnin£>: and smartino- 
of the flesh, which lasted some hours. The air be- 
gan to be oppressive, and we were glad to get away 
from the scene of desolation. 



EFORE the sun had reached its zenith we 
*i^f)l arrive at the Pilmm's Ford of the Hiyer 
Ti^^f Jordan, so named from the fact of its being 
^"^ the place where all pilgrims go to bathe. 
This place is made hallowed by many sacred as- 
sociations. The Holy word informs us that the 
children of Israel after their journey of forty years 
in the wilderness passed over into the land of 
Canaan ''right against Jericho." At this ford the 
waters have been divided three times ; first, for the 
passage of Israel ; second, when Elijah and Elisha 
crossed to the other side where the former let his 
mantle fall upon the latter, and ascended to Hea- 
ven; and third, for the return of Elisha. Here 
Christ was baptized, and the haughty Naaman was 
sent to dip three times. 

rdVER JORDAN. 299 

Hither come pilgrims once a year in great num- 
bers to bathe. Our dragoman told me that two 
years before he saw a caravan of seventeen thou- 
sand pilgrims come down to the Jordan and plunge 

The river is narrow and swift. It rises in the 
Anti-Lebanon mountains, and flowing down through 
the lake of Tiberias, empties into the Dead Sea. 
Leaving our horses in charge of Nijem, we soon go 
through the ceremony of dipping three times, and by 
wading and swimming against the swift current, are 
soon on the other side. Climbing up the opposite 
bank and looking back, the first thoughts that came 
to my mind were of the hymn which I had many 
times sung — 

" Sweet fields beyond the swelling flood 
Stand dressed in living green ; 
So to the Jews old Canaan stood 
While Jordan rolled between." 

I shall never hear that hymn sung without being 
carried back to the hour, when I stood "on 
the other side of Jordan." To the east lay the 


plain where the children of Israel were so long en- 
camped, while Moses gave them the Law ; and also 
Mount Pisgah, from the summit of v»'hich Moses was 
permitted* to view the promised land before he 

Of course we filled our cans with Jordan water, as 
every j)i^oi'™ is ex^DCcted to bring some home with 

While in bathing a large company of Bedouins 
came down the opposite bank and crossed the 
stream. The train of camels which they had with 
them being able to easily ford the river. They had 
come from the mountains east and were on their 
way south toward Egypt. Our Dragoman entered 
into conversation with them and ascertained that 
they belonged to a friendly tribe. They pointed 
over the mountains, and said that a battle had 
taken place over there between two hostile tribes 
of Bedouins three days before, and as they came by 
many of the slain were lying upon the battle-field. 
Their appearance was much like the Camanche 
Indians of our own country ; and we were not dis- 


pleased when we saw them repack their camels, and 
disappear across the plains toward the Dead Sea. 

The banks of the river Jordan are lined with a 
thick growth of bushes, and among them grows the 
celebrated Balsam tree, which was considered by 
the ancient nations who inhabited this country to 
possess a medicinal virtue ; and we are told that 
Anthony, for the sake of the tree, made a present 
of the plains of the Jordan to Cleopatra. Here 
also grows the luxuriant Oleander to the size of a 
tree. The heat is almost unbearable and has a very 
enervating effect. We slowly return to the camp 
where we stretch ourselves under the ^g trees^ 
lying with our handkerchiefs wet and placed upon 
our heads, while one of the company reads to us 
the story of the crossing of the children of Israel 
with the ark of the covenant, and of the setting up of 
the twelve monumental stones, to commemorate 
God's goodness in dividing the waters and bringing 
the Israelites safely into the land of Canaan. 

As the eye sweeps around the vast and desolate 
plain, which was once occupied by tramping mil- 


lions, the land tliat " flowed with milk and honey," 
it requires no stretch of the imagination to realize 
that the curse of God has been fulfilled. On the 
south is the dreary waste of the Dead Sea ; to the 
west are the barren hills of Judea, among which 
can be seen the Mount of Temptation, on the top 
of which Satan offered the kingdoms of the world 
to the Son of God if he would bow down and wor- 
ship him ; to the north and east is the great valley 
of the Jordan and the land of Moab, and also toward 
the east the land where once stood the " Giant 
cities of Bashan." 

Meditating upon this grand and solitary scene, 
we prepare ourselves for the last night upon the 
plain and decide to start at daylight for Jerusalem. 



C ARCEL Y had we fallen asleep before we 
^^^% were awakened by a wild humming sound 
outside of the tents, and going out we find 
^ about a dozen Bedouin Arabs dancing a 
war dance around the cook's fire, brandishing 
swords which they carried with them, and making 
night hideous with their howling. 

Their purpose was soon made known ; they de- 
manded haksliish for the performance. Passing 
around the hat a purse was made up for them and 
through the influence of the sheiks they were in- 
duced to retire. Their voices could be heard 
shouting at a great distance as they went away. 

No sooner had we laid down again than we were 
as quickly disturbed by the rapid galloping of horse- 


men into the camp. They were friendly Arabs who 
came to notify us that a large body of Bedouins were 
in the vicinity. By firing their guns they roused the 
inhabitants of the little village of Eiha near by, 
and the women and children came excitedly into an 
enclosure adjoining the watch-tower. On the top 
of this tower a fire was kindled, which illuminated 
the darkness for miles around. It was less than 
half an hour from the arrival of the Arabs before 
the inhabitants of E-iha were in a state of defense. 
Assured that under these circumstances there was 
little chance for rest this night, we struck camp 
and long before morning dawned, were ascending 
the first mountain on our way to Jerusalem. As 
we were threading our v/ay over the rocks a stran- 
ger joined our caravan ; and soon another, and 
another, until several savage looking Bedouins 
were walking barefooted among our horses. The 
only garment which they wore was a coarse heavy 
blanket thrown around them, but each was well 
armed with gun and war club. 

Not a word was spoken by any one, suddenly 


they disappeared in tlie darkness. Once more 
they came and departed in the same mysterious 
manner. After which we could hear them on the 
hills singing their wild Arabic songs and calling to 
one another. 

Our path was for a half a mile through a deep 
gorge, and when near the darkest part guns were 
fired over our heads. As we came out on the 
other side of the mountain, these savages rushed 
down upon us with a yell resembling an Indian 
war whoop, catching the horses bridles they said 
we had gold, and must give it to them or they 
would take it from us. Our sheiks now sprang for- 
ward to the front, when there commenced a series 
of manoeuvres which lasted several minutes, and if 
they were not dangerous, they were certainly in- 
teresting to us, who calmly waited to see the result. 

They would talk and gesticulate in the most vio- 
lent manner, and often place the muzzles of their 
guns close to each other's heads as if to fire, then 
put them down, and again with swords and war 
clubs dash up to one another. The conflict ap- 


peared on tlie verge of commencing several times. 
After this exciting wrangle had continued for some 
time the robbers slowly retreated back into the moun- 
tains and we were allowed to proceed. The j)roba- 
bilitj is that many of these demonstrations are gotten 
up for the purpose of extorting money from travel- 
ers without the intent of murder or violence. Al- 
lowing this to be tiue, I will venture the assertion, 
that, if we had not outnumbered them, and been 
too well armed, they would have appropriated to 
their own use what little spare change we had with 
us, even if they had been compelled to resort to a 
dishonorable method to obtain it. 

The Bedouin Arabs live in small villages, or wan- 
der in caravans making their abode wherever night 
overtakes them. Their wealth generally consists 
in the number of camels, horses, sheep, or goats 
which they possess. They divide themselves into 
tribes and these frequently attack one another with 
great • fury, sometimes from one cause and some- 
times from another, and when it is for the purpose 
of robbery the victorious party will drive off with 


tliem all the flocks belonging to the defeated tribe. 
They are splendid horsemen. They generally ride 
upon a gallop, and they can fire their guns witi 
great precision, although going at full speed. 

Their women are made to do the drudgery, and 
are the slaves of the men. They paint and tatoo 
their faces, making themselves as hideous as the 
South Sea Islanders. 

The Bedouin Arab often thinks more of his horse 
than of his wife. Give him a piece of bread and he 
will share it with his horse. These animals are 
small, graceful, and kind, and when going fast 
always gallop, as they are never trained to trot. 

The Turkish government have not much control 
over these people, excepting those along the sea- 

I was informed that the only way the Sultan 
could collect the taxes from the various tribes in- 
habiting the country east of the Dead Sea and 
mountains of Moab, was to send among them an 
army to take possession of whatever they could 
find; principally camels and horses, which they 
would drive to the cities along the sea-coast. 


Pteacliing the fountain of El Hand, we toiled up 
tiie mountain to Bethany, where we discharged our 
escort, and spurring our jaded horses around the 
southern crest of the Mount of Olives, the Holy City 
came again in sight. On the mountains round 
about could be seen the camps, not of the Roman 
army, but of the Quaker City Pilgrims, who now 
began to arrive in small companies from the differ- 
ent parts of Palestine. 





^^ 0-DAY, Miss B and myself are seated 

in the door of our tent, bargaining with 
the sellers of curiously wrought articles 
of olive-wood and pearl. They are Arabs 
who have come out of the city to dispose of their 
wares, and are extremely persistent in their efforts 
to trade. One aged Arab is offering for sale some 
tiny goblets, which he declares are made from an 
olive tree cut from the Mount of Olives ; and to 
prevent our disbelief in his story, produces a writ- 
ten statement, bearing th^ stamp and seal of some 
consul, to the purport that we might believe any 
thing which the bearer asserted. Suffice to say, 
we made selections of his goods, and he left, 
bestowing a plenitude of good will and wishes 
upon us. 


One after anotlier of the Pilgrim caraps vanish, 
as the time has come for them to be marching to 
the sea, Nijem has given the order that we must be 
in readiness at daylight. We make one more trip 
through the city, and around outside of the walls. 
The following morning, as the first rays of morning 
light dawned over Mount Olivet, we turn upon 
our horses, and take a farewell look of the City of 
the Great King — the city where were enacted 
such thrilling events at the commencement of the 
Christian era — the central figure being Christ, 
about which the great Jewish historian makes men- 
tion in these words : 

" Now, there was about this time Jesus, a wise 
man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a 
doer of wonderful works — a teacher of such men 
as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over 
to him both many of the Jews and many of the 
Gentiles. He was [the] Christ ; and when Pilate, at 
the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, 
had condemned him to the cross, those that loved 
him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared 


to tliem alive again the tliird day, as tlie divine 
prophets had foretold, these and ten thousand other 
wonderful things concerning him ; and the tribe 
of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct 
to this day." 

As we bid adieu to Palestine, I will record the 
lesson which I have learned. 

It is a rocky and desolate land. The inhabitants 
are poor and deprived of the advantages of the 
society and refinement which exist under the 
more civilized governments of the world: but a 
visit to this country cannot fail to stamp upon the 
mind of the pilgrim the truth of the Bible. When- 
ever a description of a place, or location of a valley, 
mountain, hill, or city is mentioned in the Holy 
Word, by comparison and examination the truth 
of the statement will be verified. Many things 
have thus been explained to my mind, which I have 
never understood before. 

"Two women shall be grinding at a mill; the 
one shall be taken, and the other left." " Two shall 
be upon the house top." "The shepherd goeth 


before his sheep, and the sheep follow him, for thej 
know his voice." All these passages of scripture, 
and many more, are illnstrated by the manners and 
customs of the people, which are the same now as 
they were thousands of years ago ; and if I had 
never been a believer in the sacred Word, I am 
sure that I should leave Jerusalem with a firm con- 
viction of the truth of the story of Christ, and the 
Christian religion. 

We are once more on board our floating home, 
and it is pleasant to see the sun-browned faces of 
the Pilgrims, as they return from their long and 
arduous journeyings. Some of the ladies are pretty 
well tired out, and express themselves satisfied that 
they have reached the ship where they can rest. 
I am confident that our ship never looked so inviting 
to me as it now does upon my return from the pil- 
grimage. There have been no mishaps and no 
deaths, therefore no faces are missing. 

Our ship's company is enlarged by the addition 
of most of the Jaffa colonists, who have made 


arrangements to go on our steamer to Egypt, and 
from there sliijD to Southampton. Ere this, I pre- 
sume they have reached America, wiser and better 

Our course was now toward Alexandria, Egypt, 
which we reached in two days. 

How quickly all are on deck to get the first view 
of the city founded by Alexander the Great — the 
most important sea-port of the Mediterranean. 
Taking a pilot on board, our steamer is guided up 
the narrow and dangerous channel. 

As we near the level and sandy shores, the 
Viceroy's palace and the Pillar of Diocletian appear 
in the distance. 

The light of day fades away and the stars come 
out one by one, as we glide among the ships of all 
nations and let go the anchor near to an Egyptian 
man-of-war. Around us are hundreds of lights 
sparkling and dancing upon the waters. 



£^ GYPTIAN donkeys and boys, both about 
/ui^fv the same heis^ht, are our first introduc- 
W'^M tion to Alexandria. There is such a 
^^ swarm of them we can hardly land The 
boys are shouting vociferously, " Good donkey ! 
fine donkey! have a ride." These little animals 
are the most important conveyance in the city. At 
every turn they come trotting or jumping along 
with their heavy burdens, while the boys are run- 
ning behind, and urging them forward with blows 
and shouts. 

There is no time to be wasted, and we proceed 
at once to explore the city. There is something 
invigorating in the life and stir around us after our 
long and tiresome journey. 

EGYPT. 315 

In tlie center of tlie city is the '-' Esbehiyeli^^^ or 
square, filled with trees. Around this runs a broad 
street lined with banking-houses, and shops whose 
windows are filled with European goods. 

The ancient Pillar of Diocletian, or Pompey's 
Pillar, stands now outside of the walls of the city ; 
but the spot was once the center of Alexandria. It 
is over ninety feet high, and was erected in the 
third century, in honor of Diocletian. This column 
is formed of one immense block of red Egyptian 
granite, a stone on which time makes but little im- 

The Catacombs well reward the investigation of 
the curious antiquary. Many of these tombs have 
been opened and divested of their contents. In 
them have been discovered relics which date back 
thousands of years. The Catacombs of Egypt are 
more vast in extent than any in the world. The 
most ancient are those of the Kings of Thebes. It 
is believed that the Egyptians spent such sums of 
money upon embalming and upon magnificent 
sepulchres, because they had faith in the literal 

316 EGYPT. 

resurrection of tlie body, if it were preserved from 
decay. The richest and costliest of the catacombs 
are completely covered in their interior by sculp 
tured hieroglyphics, and by paintings in fresco 
which, when found free from the desecrations of 
the Arabs, " are as fresh as if laid on but yester- 
day," and the colors are extremely brilliant, 
although thousands of years old. The sculptures 
. and the frescoes represent all the scenes of Egyp- 
tian history, as well as their ceremonies and cus- 
toms, from the coronation of a monarch to a child 
among his toys. 

The entrances to the catacombs of Thebes are 
simply by a gate, in a square frame which surrounds 
the subterranean opening. You descend first into 
one vast area filled with chambers containing the 
stone cofiins of the mummies, then far into another, 
and then again into still lower deeps among the 
dead of ages ago. " The entire chain of mountains 
in the neighborhood of Thebes," says one writer, 
"is mined by an immense number of catacombs. 
It is calculated that during the ages when the art 

EGYPT. 317 

of mummification was known and practiced, not less 
than 400,000,000 of mummies were entombed in 
the Egyptian catacombs!" 

This, not of Egypt entire, but of one single city 
of Egypt. The catacombs of Rome have never yet 
been fully explored ; but it is said that many of 
them were made long before the Eome of Romulus 
and Remus, and that all the Seven Hills are honey- 
combed with passages, dark corridors, and galleries, 
where the sunshine never enters. 

Here we see evidences of the early history of the 
world, for no land has such a historical record as 
Egypt. It is the country where lived the builders 
of the Pyramids, where dwelt the Pharaohs, and 
where Jacob visited his long lost son Joseph ; the 
land from which the children of Israel marched 
forth from their oppressors, and the country to 
which Joseph and Mary fled with the infant Christ. 

Cleopatra's Needles, another monument of the 
ancient splendor of Egypt, is standing in Alexan> 
dria. There were two, standing side by side. One 
of them was presented by the Pacha some years 

318 EGYPT. 

ago to England, and the attempt was made to con- 
vey it to Trafalgar Square, London. They suc- 
ceeded in lowering it to the ground, where it lies 
buried in the sand to this day. It is truly wonder- 
ful how these great pillars and blocks of stone in 
Ephesus, Baalbec, Jerusalem, and Egypt, were 
moved to the positions where they now are. Many 
of them are monoliths — solid squares of stone or 
marble, fifty to sixty feet in length, and ten to 
fifteen feet in diameter, weighing thousands of tons. 
These great blocks in some cases were chiseled 
from the quarries and carried hundreds of miles, 
then were lifted into walls or posited upon pedestals 
at a considerable elevation from the ground. Have 
not some of the arts of the world known to former 
generations passed away? At the present time, 
with all the science, skill, and machinery known to 
man, these enormous weights could scarcely be 

The Obelisk standing is of the same material as 
Pompey's Pillar, and covered with hieroglyphics. 
It is over seventy feet in height. These needles 

EGYPT. 319 

are supposed to have been brought by one of the 
Cfesars from the city of Heliopolis. The position 
which they now occupy was in front of Cagsar's 
palace, and they were called Cleopatra's needles in 
honor of the Egyptian Queen. 

We have ridden around the city, and along the 
banks of the Nile, passing many beautiful gardens 
filled with date and banana trees with luxuriant 
bunches of the delicious fruit ripening upon them. 

The Egyptian dates are the finest we have found. 
They grow exceedingly large, and form an impor- 
tant article of export. On the banks of the Nile 
are large numbers of the fellaheen^ employed in 
various ways. At one time we make our way amid 
camels with their wide-spreading loads, and anon 
trains of donkeys on which are panniers filled with 
grass or bearing goat-skins full of water. Wells 
are far less common in the East than with us, and 
water-carriers are in constant demand. They fre- 
quently bear picturesque vases of water strapped to 
their backs. These have a spout near the handles 
of the vase, and when the carrier wishes to fill a 

320 EGYPT. 

cup or other vessel, lie stoops forward and the 
cup is soon filled. The forms of some of these 
vases have not materially changed for ages. 

Women and boys are trudging along carrying 
dates. Many of the women convey their children 
upon their shoulders, the child holding fast to its 
mother's head to steady itself, while older ones will 
balance themselves in this position, looking around 
quite unconcerned. A different mode of treating 
the infant prevails in Italy. There it is secured to 
a pillow, looking much like a mummy, or bound to 
a board and carried on the mother's back, or hung 
upon a tree while she works in the fields. 

The Egyptian women are in the habit of carrying 
burdens on their heads, which gives them a straight 
and lofty carriage. Their greatest care is to con- 
ceal their faces. 

One is not surprised that i)lagues sweep over 
this land with such terrible fury, when he observes 
the extreme want of cleanliness which exists among 
the people. The children often have but one rag- 
ged article of clothing about them, the upper part 

EGYPT. 321 

of the body being entirely exposed to the sun and 

Sirocco winds. It is not uncommon to see females 

similarly clothed. 

Many of the streets of Alexandria are extremely 

narrow, and the houses are built over the streets, 

each story projecting over the one below, so that 

. the tops nearly meet. This makes the streets cool, 

as they are thus protected from the sun's rays. The 

windows are latticed in lieu of glass. In some 

places old pieces of matting or canvass are put up 

under which the people collect. Here they are 

sheltered from the sun while they smoke, talk, and 


The money-changers are walking along with a 
bag of francs in one hand and Egyptian silver pieces 
in the other, which they chink and toss in the air ; 
meanwhile calling to the people to know if they 
wish their money changed. 



(^^ SMAEL Pacha, the Khe-dive of Egypt, rules 
»r^|j nearly four millions of people. His govern- 
ment is an absolute monarchy like that of 
the Sultan, to whom he reports once a year. 
He is much more liberal in his views than the Sul- 
tan and is more ready to introduce and adopt the 
manners and customs of more civilized nations 
Thus in Egypt we see railroads and manufactories 
running by steam. Machinery of the most ap- 
proved kinds is now being brought to Egypt, and 
before many years Alexandria bids fair to rank in 
enterprise and commerce among the first cities of 
the world. 

In appearance the Viceroy is dark and somewhat 
lighter built than the Sultan. His face wears a look 


of considerable intelligence and activitj. He 
wears the inevitable fez and a European suit of 

Mr. G lias been fortunate enougli to obtain 

permission to visit tlie Viceroy's palace. It is a 
large, highly decorated and showy structure. Ad- 
joining is the Harem. Many of the rooms in the 
palace are so richly adorned in Oriental style, that 
they strikingly remind one of the deeds of good 
genii in the Arabian Nights. At almost every 
door, we pass a Nubian guard. We are informed 
that the Viceroy selects these Nubians for the most 
trusty positions for the reason that they make more 
faithful servants than the native Egyptians. 

In a large square belonging to the palace are 
several companies of soldiers, dressed in bright 
zouave uniforms and going through with their daily 
drill. In one of the rooms of the court building 
we witnessed the trial of several prisoners for petty 
crimes. Each culprit was brought in by an armed 
guard and placed before the high officer or judge, 
who was sitting cross-legged upon a broad crimson 


divan. The coffee and pipe was often handed to 
him during his arduous hibor. Yv^ithout scarcely 
lifting his eyes to the prisoner he would silently lis- 
ten to the recounting of his crime by witnesses. 
After which in a few words he would pronounce 
the sentence, when the unfortunate criminal would 
be hurried away by the soldiers, and another brought 
to take his place. 

The Viceroy frequently goes out to ride in a 
splendid European carriage which he keeps for his 
ostentatious use. A loud cracking of a whip and 
the shouting of a groom announce to the dispersing 
crowd the approach of the Magnate. Several 
gaudily dressed horsemen go prancing by, followed 
by the Pacha seated in his luxurious carriage drawn 
by six fine Arabian horses. After which follow 
other horsemen which complete the retinue. 

With eager steps the Pilgrims now press forward 
to the Pyramids, Cairo "the city of Victory," and 
other places. Two have decided to return to 
America by the way of Marseilles, and have 
already left on a French steamer. One has sailed 


for Southampton, and two more have already gone 
to Constantinople. We have determined to change 
the route of our journey, and instead of accompany- 
ing the Quaker City to Valencia, Spain, as our pas- 
sage ticket entitles us to do, we have concluded 
to bid good-bye to our friends and sail for Corfu as 
we wish to see more of the continent of Europe 
before we return. 

One of the Austrian Lloyd steamers is anchored 
near us, and is about to sail for Corfu. X\q row 
out to her to get an idea of her accommodations 
and are greatly pleased with her appearance. 
She is an elegant new iron steamship, and su- 
perbly fitted up, besides being extremely neat 
pjkI comfortable. We return to the shore and at 
the office of the steamship company engage our 
passage on the Apollo. 

In parting from the Quaker City^ which has 
been our floating home for months, I have only 
the pleasantest of recollections. My lady friends 
of the party I shall certainly remember with the 
kindest regard. They have been obliging and 


courteous, and the time spent in their society 
has been veiy pleasant indeed. 

There might readily be given reasons for and 
against so large a company traveling over the 
world together ; but while we have been with 
the Pilgrims in the East tne time has passed 
away pleasantly and profitably. To be sure the 
Quaker City was not loaded with a gay and giddy 
throng. They were mostly persons of middle age 
gathered from various parts of America, and as a 
general thing intelligent, aspiring for information, 
and accustomed to wealth and refinement. 

It is full as well for one to be considerate while 
wanderino: over the ruins of the ancient cities of 
the world, and walking amid the sacred places of 
Christianity ; however, I think none of the voyagers 
will ever look back upon their journey with re- 
gret, even though the great excursion bears the 
stamp of sobriety and moderation. 

After the final leave takin^^ we are soon on board 
the AjJoUo bound for Corfu. 



LEEPING soundly and sweetly all night, 

>7f^ I arose early and looked out of the state- 

^ room window. The sun was just rising 

out of the beautiful blue waters of the 

Mediterranean. Afar off on the waves the early 

sunlight is dancing and flashing, spreading a golden 

lustre upon the bosom of the deep. 

We have coffee at seven and breakfast at ten 

The passengers all appear strange to us. They 
are composed of Egyptians, Turks, Greeks, and a 
few from India on their way to Germany and Eng- 
land. I formed an acquaintance with a very esti- 
mable and cultured India lady, who is going on a 
visit to Germany in company with her husband and 
child. She took much interest in explaining to me 


the manners and customs of the people of India, also 
giving us valuable information about the missionary 
work there. I was much interested in her descrip- 
tion of their passage through the Red Sea. The 
weather was intensely warm, seriously affecting the 
passengers and resulting in the death of one, a not 
unusual circumstance on the passage. 

A young couple who had been recently married in 
Bombay, had taken passage on the same steamer. 
They were going to Austria to see the relatives 
of the groom, whom he had not seen for many 

The groom was suddenly taken ill and died. 
After a few simple ceremonies, amid the gloom of 
the ship and the heart-rending grief of the bride, 
the body was lowered into the deep. 

There was much sympathy manifested among 
the passengers for the beautiful but unfortunate 
India bride. 

" TTeep for the life-charm early flown, 
The spirit broken, bleeding and alone." 

A generous collection was taken up and pre- 


sented her, and every possible assistance was ren- 
dered her by the voyagers. 

To-day is a charming one on land and sea; and 
as we glide along close to the island of Candia every 
little while one of the Turkish blockading fleet 
conies in sight. 

The lofty mountains of the island are on our right 
in which are secreted the noble Cretans who have 
battled so long and suffered so much for their 
liberty. We sweep swiftly by the island of Cerigo, 
and by Navarino where the great naval battle was 
fought between the Turks and English; pass the 
islands of Zante and Cephalonia, and the next day 
at ten o'clock, rounding the high rocky point on 
which stands an old Roman fort, we sighted the city 
of Corfu. 

The fort is hewn out of solid rock, and looks pic- 
turesque, being completely overgrown with vines 
and shrubs. 

The island of Corfu is one of the largest in the 
Ionian sea. It is thickly populated and has an 
abundance of fruit. The oranges are exceedingly 

332 '^HE VOYAGE. 

fine.* Here we have a refreshing shower of 7'ain ; 
the first which we have seen for over ^\q months. 

From Corfu we sail through the Adriatic Sea for 
Trieste, Austria. For a long distance the shore 
presents a peculiar appearance. Mountains of rock 
rise perpendicular to a great height out of the sea. 

The v/eather is changing rapidly as we steam to 
the northward, and the light clothing adapted to the 
Egyptian climate must be laid aside, and thick warm 
garments substituted, as we near the colder latitude 
of Austria. 

We are soon out of sight of land. For two days 
and nights our splendid steamer has been struggling 
in the Adriatic. The storm has been fearful. It is 
the time of the year our captain informs us when 
the Borea sweeps down from the Alpine mountains 
upon the Adriatic sea with terrible fury. Great 
foaming waves would wash over the steamer, carry- 
ing away anything not strongly secured to the deck. 
The passengers are compelled to remain in their 
berths below and hold on firmly to keep themselves 
from being dashed to and fro. The pilots are 


lashed to the wheel, and the loud roar of the hurri- 
cane through the rigging drowns ever other sound. 

The Adriatic is noted for these gales. On the 
morning of the sixth day after leaving Egypt our 
staunch steamer plowed her way into the harbor of 

Coming safely through such a terrific gale leads 
me to notice how well adapted and constructed 
these powerful iron steamships are for trying service 
on the sea. Whole fleets of them are already in 
possession of Austria, Egypt, and even Turkey. 
My own great country with all its immense resour- 
ces is far inferior in its ocean service. 

Taking rooms at the Locanda Grande we are glad 
once more to be on terra firma, after ^yq days 
sailing. Again we are among a people who dress 
in European style. It seems strange not to see and 
hear the clamor of the turbaned Turks and Arabs to 
whom we have become so accustomed. 

In the large square fronting our hotel is the 

' statue of Charles the Sixth, and a curious fountain. 

Near by is the market square in which are two or 

334 ^^^ VOYAGE. 

three hundred men and women with stands in front of 
them, on which are placed scales, as all the fruits and 
vegetables are sold by weight. 

The women wear short petticoats, and kerchiefs 
about their heads, and are quite tidy and neat. 

Trieste is the most important Austrian city on 
the Adriatic. It is a fine commercial port, and has 
an extensive canal, large enough to admit ordinary 
vessels, which penetrates to the heart of the city. 
We give the Exchange, Opera-house, and Catholic 
Cathedral a call. The latter has some very fine 

To-day a feeling of sadness comes over me, like 
a cloud in the calm clear sky. I am thinking of 
home. It is the sixth anniversary of my dear 
sister's death — the first that I have missed placing 
my tribute of flowers upon her grave. 

The castle of Miramar, the residence of the late 
Emperor Maximilian, stands just out of Trieste, ad- 
mirably situated upon the shore of the Adriatic. It 
is a very handsome place with extensive grounds. 

The castle is partly closed and left in care of the 


servants, as the Empress Carlotta is staying with her 
sister in Belgium. 

The people here speak in praise of the unfortu- 
nate Maximilian. Evidently he was a much greater 
favorite with the Austrians than his brother the pre- 
sent Emperor Francis Joseph. 





^HE early morning train brings us from 
Trieste, along the shore of the Adriatic, 
and through the mountains and valleys 
of Styria, to the little town of Adelsberg 
where is to be seen one of the greatest natural ex- 
cavations of the Old World. 

At the ofi&ce of the Grotto we are required to 
register our names and pay the fee, which is from 
ten to fifteen. dollars, according to the number of 
guides which attend you. "We employ five, the 
usual number. Each one c'arries a basket filled with 
candles, as we are to have a "grand illumination " 
which requires about three hundred lights. 

This wonderful Grotto was discovered in the 
eleventh century, and soon became celebrated for 
the splendor and richness of its interior. It is 


composed of many caverns wliicli have been found 
at different times. The most notable are named 
"The Cathedral" "Ball Room," "Behind the 
Mummies," Belvidere," and "Calvary Mountain." 

In the Ball Room, which is a half a mile under 
the mountain, a ball is given on Whitsuntide Mon- 
day by the surrounding peasantry. At this 
time the Emperor visits the caverns which are il- 
luminated by many thousand lights. 

Wrapped in thick warm clothing and accompa- 
nied by the guides we enter the first cavern beside 
the river Peik. Following its course for some dis- 
tance under the mountain, it plunges its foaming 
flood over the inflexible rocks with a wild and almost 
deafening roar. The darkness and gloom, the re- 
flection of our lights in the rushing water, form a 
scene long to be remembered. Suddenly the river 
disappears in the earth and is seen no more. 

Following our guides through Ferdinand's Grotto 
we come into one called St. Peter's Chair, where 
the stalactites are combined in such a manner as to 
resemble St. Peter's chair at Rome. The Ball- 


Room has a spacious floor on Trliicli many hundred 
couples of the young peasantry can dance at once, 
while the strains of the band of music echo through 
the lofty arches of the cavern. The seats for the 
orchestra have been perfectly formed by nature in 
the wall high above the floor. 

Some of the guides have already illuminated with 
a hundred lights the Belvidere, and the eye rests 
upon a grand formation of stalactites. Transparent 
curtains are waving down in light folds. In a 
niche is a grou]3 of children apparently asleep. In 
another part of the cave a beautiful spring falls like 
a silver ribbon thirty feet upon the crystal pave- 
ment below. A monument has been erected here 
in honor of Francis Joseph First and his consort the 
Empress Elizabeth. In the cave justly called the 
'^Flower Garden " are represented by stalactites and 
stalagmites, thousands of flowers of purest white — 
above, below, on either side we step among them, 
seemingly transported to some enchanted fairy land. 
One cannot form a just conception of the impressive 
beauty of this spot without seeing it. 



After wandering through grotto after grotto 
each one more beautiful than the others, we return 
from the subterrannean world to the light of dav, 
fully satisfied that it would be in vain to endeavor 
to depict the innumerable variations in the groups 
and formations which nature has displayed in the 
beautiful stalactites and stalagmites of the different 
caverns of this wonderful grotto. 

Returning to the hotel we find the village peas- 
antry assembling in the large saloon around small 
tables, to while away the evening hours. Many 
well dressed ladies and gentlemen are playing vari- 
ous games and merrily talking. The tables are 
loaded with glasses which are often filled with 
foaming beer. The ladies seem to enjoy drinking 
it as much as the gentlemen. The whole forms an 
interesting picture of German life. 

The railroad from here to Vienna runs over the 
Styrian Alps or Semmering mountains. This road 
was built at an expense of over one hundred 
million of dollars. Its length is three hundred 
and sixty miles, and it is a most extraordinary piece 


of engineering. The difficulty in carrying this 
road over the Alps is shown by its being necessary 
to cut fourteen different tunnels through the rock, 
in a distance of less than two miles. At one 
moment we are crossing a deep valley, at another, 
running along the edge of a dizzy precipice, over 
which the merest accident would throw the train 
and dash it to atoms. At another time we are fly- 
ing along among the snow and ice on the tops of 
the Semmering mountains, and then for a long time 
descend with lightning speed, depending entirely 
upon .the breaks for our safety ; and yet we are 
told that an accident seldom happens, so much care 
and precaution are bestowed upon the management 
of this road. 

At the pleasant town of Gratz on the river Mur, 
we find the people sociable and thrifty. It is quite 
a rich and aristocratic place, and we had been in- 
formed that it was celebrated for the beauty of its 
females. Of course I was on the qin vive to see 
them, but I could not detect their superiority in 
this respect. 


The country from, liere to Vienna is finely culti- 
vated. It being Autumn tlie peasantry are indus- 
triously gathering the plentiful crops. Men and 
women are at work in the fields together. 

Along the wayside, as in Italy and France, are 
numerous shrines for the laborer and traveler, in 
front of which we frequently see some poor peas- 
ant kneelins: at his devotions. 

While meditating upon the varied scenes which 
pass by like a panorama as we speed along, the im- 
posing city of Vienna looms up in the distance. 



lENNA is to Austria what Paris is to France. 
The Austrians term it the Emperor's city. 
The streets are spacious and well laid out, 
and are lined with fine stores filled with 
rich goods. 

The Viennese are out on the streets or promenad- 
ing on the Bastes giving the city a gay and lively 

We are delightfully situated at the Kaiserin 
Elizabeth and feel quite at home. 

Vienna is located on a plain on the south side of 
the dark rolling waters of the Danube. It is sur- 
rounded by strong fortifications and has been the 
^ theatre of many a sanguinary conflict. It has been 
contended for by the Romans, the Goths, and subse- 

.F^ iaiii i p 'y i^iifiiipfffii 



VIENNA. 34»^ 

quently Charlemagne obtained possession of it. 
The saying is that over two millions have been slain 
upon the battle-field of Vienna. 

Some days are busily occupied with its churches, 
palaces, galleries, shops, and parks. Among the 
latter the Prater is the most frequented by eques- 
trians and carriages, many of which are very ele- 
gant, reminding one of Hyde Park, London. This 
park is four miles in length, and bounded by two 
branches of the Danube. It is threaded with car- 
riage roads and foot walks, contains a number of 
cafes and pavilions, and when thronged with peo- 
ple looks like an enchanted forest. 

The Austrians consider the Danube the finest 
river in the world, and certainly there is some excuse 
for their pride in this noble stream, second in size 
to the Volga alone in all Europe. It rises some- 
where in the Black Forest, and after a tortuous 
course of 1,770 miles empties into the Black Sea. 
From Passauto Lin tz the scenery about the Danube 
excels in sombre grandeur anything to be seen on 
the PJiine. It is a dangerous river to navigate on 

348 VIENNA. 

account of tlie reefs, whirlpools, and the rapidity of 
its current. Its course from Lintz to Vienna is not 
swift however, and very peaceful and rustic farm- 
ing scenes delight the eye of the traveler. 

At breakfast we are agreeably surprised by meet- 
ing a general and his charming wife from America, 
who had traveled with us in England, and were now 
on their way to Italy, intending to remain in 
Europe for two or three years. 

What a glorious morning, the sky is clear, the 
weather lovely, and all nature full of joy. We im- 
prove it by driving to the Palace of Schonbrunn just 
outside of the city, the summer residence of Francis 
Joseph and Elizabeth — the Emperor and Empress. 
There Maria Theresa resided, and Napoleon when 
in Austria. The Duke of Eeichstadt lived and died 
there. The palace is decorated with paintings, 
gilding, and statuary. In the garden of the palace 
Stapps the German student attempted to assassinate 
the French Emperor. 

We could not fail to call the gardens of Schon- 
brunn delightful. They are shut in by trees trimmed 

VIENNA. 349 

, into high walls of varied green and are adorned 
with parterres of brilliant flowers. Scattered here 
and there are fountains and statues. There are 
conservatories for rare and exotic plants, and also a 
menagerie. At the end of the garden on a hill is 
the Glorietta Temple, from which is the finest view 
in the environs of Vienna. 

We wandered through the long avenues of the 
park over which large trees are bent and trimmed 
to meet, forming a shady bower for miles in length. 

At the foot of the Glorietta hill is the beautiful 
fountain of Schonobrunnen. Near the palace is a 
small hotel where we dine in true German style. 
Instead of coffee or tea every one drinks beer and 
wine. The Austrians enjoy their meals heartily, 
sitting for a long time at the table, each one en- 
deavoring to be sociable and entertaining. 

Last evening we attended the opera at the Grand 
Opera House. It was crowded with the beau 
monde of Vienna, many of the gentlemen were in 
military uniforms. 

The opera, which was Zavfrpa^ was rendered 

350 VIENNA. 

finely, being accompanied by an orchestra of over 
two hundred musicians. The fau' Prima Donna 
being frequently encored by the audience, bowed 
gracefully to their marks of appreciation, but re- 
ceived no bouquets, as that custom is not in vogue 
with the Viennese. The Opera House is open 
every night, and always crowded by the music 
loving and fashionable Yiennese people. . 

No city in Europe boasts of so many resident no- 
bility as Vienna. It has no less than twenty-four 
princes, sixty or seventy counts, and any number 
of barons and other titled gentry. A great num- 
ber of these are always to be seen at the 
opera, and on the Prater, greatly enjoying life and 

St. Stephen's Cathedral is a stately and ancient 
structure, erected almost' five centuries ago. Its 
tower is over four hundred and thirty feet in height 
and is the most conspicuous object in the city. 
Among the tombs in the Cathedral are those of 
Prince Eu2:ene and Frederic the Second. Two 
hundred and ten figures and over thirty-five coats of 

VIEXXA. 351 

arms decorate tlie tomb of the latter, also the motto 
of Frederic the Second — Austria Est Imperare Orhi 
Universo. The pulpit is exceediogly unique, the 
material being of stone and curiously wrought. 
This being the time of service the grand old organ 
peals through the high arches thrilling the soul 
with a grand solemnity. 

The church of the Capuchins contains in its 
vaults the remains of many of the royal blood of 
Austria. Ringing a bell it is answered by a monk 
wearing a black gown, who guides us through 
the vaults. In the center of the first vault are 
the sarcophagi of Maria Theresa, and Francis the 
Second. The monk repeats the story that 
every day, for the last thirteen years of her life, 
Maria Theresa descended to this vault to mourn 
by the tomb of her dear Francis. 

The casket containing the remains of the Duke of 
Reichstadt is made of copper and is very plain ; 
the only ornament being a raised cross ; beside it is 
that of his mother, Maria Lousia, and his grq.nd- 
father, the emperor Francis First, whose dying re- 

352 \1ENNA. 

quest T^ras that he might be buried beside his grand- 
son. In a solid silver coffin lie the remains of Joseph 
the First. In an obscure corner of the vaults bv the 
light of the taper the monk pointed to the tomb of 
Maria Theresa's Preceptress, as it tths the Eui- 
press's desire to have her placed in the same 
vault. Here repose ancestral grandeur and po^^er. 
There are over one hundred buried in the vaults of 
the Capuchins. After leaving the Church of the 
Capuchins vre enjoy a stroll amid the busy maze 
of life and pleasure. The Viennese seem to like 
nothino^ so well as to see and be seen. Thronc^s are 

o o 

sauntering along in front of the jewelry, meer- 
schaum, Bohemian ware and fancy goods stores, and 
on the Glacis. The Belvidere, Egyptian Museum 
and Imperial Arsenal are crowded with objects of 
great value and interest. After making purchases 
at tlie shops we return to our hotel. 



•AKING a Jlaci^e we drive througli tlie 
[r^K streets of the Imperial city to the railway 
^^ station to take the cars for Salzburg en 

route to Munich. 
We are ushered into one of the handsomest of 
waiting rooms we have ever seen. The station is 
of immense size, built of glass and iron, and its 
various rooms are adorned with marble statues. 
The railroad is made beautiful on either side with 
flower gardens, which extend along the whole 
route. At distances of one mile are em^ployees of 
the company, standing by the stone cottages in they live, holding a bright colored flag as a 
signal to the^ engineer that the road is free from 
danger. These watchmen also cultivate the flow- 


Large sums of money are lavished upon tlie roads 
in Germany to beautify the scenery and insure the 
safety of the traveler. The buildings and bridges 
connected with the railroads are all constructed of 
solid masonry, in the most firm and substantial 
manner. The bed of the road, between the tracks, 
is strewn with fine white pebbles to prevent the 
dust from rising as the trains dash along. The cars 
are more luxuriously upholstered than any which 
we have yet been in. Many of them are like a 
richly decorated drawing room. 

Arriving at Salzburg, the home of Mozart, we 
remain a limited time in order to visit the house 
and monument of the great composer. The house 
is built of light colored rough stone, is three stories 
high and wears a time-worn look. On the facade 
of the house is the name of Mozart, and a gilded 
lyre. Here in his infancy Mozart showed manifes- 
tations of that marvelous taste for music which 
could not be satisfied until, like Handel and Haydn^ 
he had inscribed his great name upon the roll of 
immortal fame. It is a singular fact, that the early 


days and lives of the world's greatest musical com- 
posers were spent so near together. 

Haydn was a choir boy in St. Stephen's Cathe- 
dral in Vienna, and it was in the same city that 
Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven lived and wrote 
their greatest works. 

The monument of Mozart stands in front of the 
house, and is crowned with his statue holding in the 
right hand a scroll of music. 

The noble and erect form, the high forehead, and 
the placid expression of his face, inspire the behol- 
der with reverence and admiration. 

It was here Richard First of England, better 
known as Coeur de Leon, stopped on his return 
from the wars of the Crusades in Palestine, and 
was arrested and imprisoned by the Duke of 

Salzburg is situated on the edge of the Tyrol. 
The people have many of the characteristics of the 
Tyrolese, who are noted for their peculiar warm- 
heartedness and frankness of character. The dress 

of the women consists of a large hat trimmed with 


long ribbons, skirts of green, black, or blue witli a 
corsage of variegated colors. 

They are passionately fond of music, and as they 
go by we often hear them singing some rustic air. 
As we pass they cordially greet us. 

The Tyrol is the Switzerland of Austria: In the 
valleys are the Tyrolese villages, where music and 
dancing is the frequent pastime of the peasantry. 

The Riding School, the Brunnen or fountain, 
and the Cathedral are all ornaments to Salzburg, 
which is charmingly located upon the river Salza. 

The Cathedral has an air of newness and neatness 
seldom found. In the porch is a priest with a 
tiny brush, sprinkling holy water over the devotees 
as they pass in and out. The interior is decorated 
by six extraordinary paintings representing Christ 
bearing the Cross. 

From Salzburg we are rapidly borne to Munich, 
the capital of Bavaria. The Rheinischer Hof, like 
all the German hotels we have found is scrupulously 
neat. Most of the waiters are boys from the ages 


of fifteen to eighteen, who are neatly clothed and 

Munich is called one of the most lovely and art- 
inviting cities of Europe. It abounds in cathedrals 
and galleries of art. There are in the library over 
five hundred thousand volumes, among which is 
Luther's Bible. 

The statue of Bavaria is outside of the city. It 
was modeled by Schwanthaler and is the largest in 
the world. Together with the lion and the pedes- 
tal, it is over one hundred feet in height. A spiral 
stair case leads into the head of the figure, where 
eight persons can stand at once. Around the 
statue is a very elegant colonnade and building 
called the " Hall of the Heroes." 

The two Pinacothek galleries contain the richest 
collection of paintings in Germany. The most 
noted being that of the "Deluge" by Schorn. It 
remains unfinished as the artist died before he com- 
pleted his work. The Glyptothek is filled with 
rare sculpture, dating back to the Homan and Gre- 
cian schools of art. 


This morning, accompanied by our commissioner 
who is over seventy years of age but intelligent 
and active, we went to the Royal palace of King 
Ludwig. Among its attractions is the Kaiserzimmer 
or suite of rooms once occupied by Charles the 
Seventh, also the rich chapel and cabinet of mirrors. 
In one saloon hang the portraits of thirty of the 
most beautiful women of Munich. 

From the saloon of Rudolph of Hapsburg we 
pass into the Throne Room. The gallery is sup- 
ported by marble columns, between which are gild- 
ed statues representing the various princes of 
Bavaria. At the end of this grand and gorgeous 
room is an elevated platform with three steps, which 
are beautifully carpeted, each carpet being wrought 
in different patterns. 

On the throne is the coronation chair of red vel- 
vet, set in frame work of gilt. The King is not 
quite twenty-five years of age, and is soon to be mar- 
ried. There is only one chair upon the throne but 
a place is arranged for another as soon as the mar- 
riage is consummated. 


The finest street in the city is Maximilian Street, 
being named after the Emperor Maximilian. It 
is very wide, having both carriage drives and walks 
on either side. Along the center are flowers, trees, 
and fountains. 

The Munich beer is pronounced the best in Ger- 
many. On every street are saloons and gardens 
where men, women, and children enjoy the fa- 
vorite German beverage. 

To-day we have attended a German fair or festi- 
val on the grounds in front of the statue of Bavaria. 
The trees are decked with flags and garlands, 
booths and tents are erected, and while a fine band 
discourses sweet music, the young men and maidens 
are wandering from table to table, purchasing the 
tempting fruits or chatting together. Others of the 
male portion are entering with spirit into the athletic 
feats, target practice and gymnastic exercises gener- 

The Germans appear to be the most contented 
and happy people we have seen in Europe ; and 
there is an air of thrift and industry about them 


■wliicli is very pleasant to see. They greatly 
delight in picnics, fairs, and festivals, which are 
all conducted in the most quiet and orderly 

They do not strive with such care and anxiety 
to make money, but what little they do earn is 
used to the best advantage ; and whether rich or 
poor they all seem cheerful. 

Before leaving Munich we drive out to the ceme- 
tery. A singular custom of the people is to carry 
all who die to a large building near the entrance to 
the cemetery. This hall is divided into various 
apartments by glass partitions; one is set 
apart for the rich and another for the 
poor. The bodies are prepared for burial and 
and placed in cofi&ns more or less elegant, according 
to the circumstances of the departed. Here 
' they remain generally three days, during which 
time they are exposed to the view of their relatives 
and friends. Infancy, youth, and old age sleep 
side by side Many of the coffins are almost cov- 
ered with flowers, while throngs come at all hours 


of the day to gaze sadly through the glass parti- 
tions. From two o'clock to five, every day, there is 
a continual procession of funerals from this building 
to the cemetery. 



^HE scenery from Municli to Baden Baden is 
^^ diversified and picturesque. The variety 
of tlie grand Autumn panorama, not the art 
of all the painters in the world could imitate. 
The mountains, forests, and valleys far and vfide are 
brilliant with a thousand colors. 

We roll swiftly by the pleasant cities of AugS; 
burg, in Bavaria, Ulm and Stuttgardt, in the 
kingdom of Wurtemburg, and Carlsruhe, the 
capital of the Duchy of Baden, until we reach 
the famous old town of Heidelberg, celebrat- 
ed for its Castle and University. The latter is at- 
tended by over five hundred students, who pride 
themselves on the eccentric shaped hat which they 
^ wear, and in their proficiency in duelling, which 
UDtil lately was carried to the most reprehensible 
extent. It was not unfrequent for a student of the 


university to have three, four, and sometimes even 
as many as six affairs dlionneur on his hands at 
once. They do not often kill each other, as they 
fight with a weapon not well adapted to that pur- 
pose ; but they scar each other's faces in a hideous 
manner ; and what is very singular in this age of 
refinement at least, is that they are even proud of 
these evidences of ungentlemanly brawls. 

On our left is the Black Forest, which may justly 
be called one of the most interesting districts of 
Southern Germany. It is wild and romantic. The 
tall pineS^of its forest are sombre and imposing. 
Here were laid the scenes of the celebrated Ger- 
man legend of Siegfried and numberless other 
romantic tales. 

Arriving at Baden Baden we engage board at 
the Hotel de Bussie where everything is comme il 

Although the gay season is over, there are many 
lingering here, and the hotels are tolerably well 

This morning is dull and gray, threatening rain ; 


but it does not deter us from going to ttie springs, 
and wandering over this charming spot. 

Baden Baden is built upon the slope of a hill 
on the border of the Black Forest, and bj the little 
river Oos. It is the most fashionable lounge in 
Europe. Its patrons come from Russia, Austria, 
France, Italy, England, and America. At all times 
more or less Americans are to be found here. 

There are from ten to fifteen hot springs in the val- 
ley, the water of which resembles and tastes much 
like warm milk, or weak broth. The water is con- 
sidered very efi&cacious in healing many diseases, con- 
sequently it is a resort for invalids as well as pleas- 
ure seekers. 

The Trink Halle and Conversationshaus are the 
centres of attraction. The water is brought from 
the springs in pipes to the former, where it may be 
had free at all hours of the day. The fashion con- 
centrates in the afternoon and evening in and 
around the Conversationshaus. In front has been 
erected a Pagoda for musical bands, at an expense 
of fifteen thousand dollars. 


The Conversationshaus is brilliantly lighted in the 
evening, where may be seen the excitement and 
merriment at its full height. Hundreds are dancing 
and promenading to the music, while in small saloons 
contiguous to the ball room are gambling tables, 
at which are gathered old and young, male 
and female. As the wheel revolves thousands 
of dollars are changing hands. This opens a 
new leaf in the history of my life, as it is the first 
time I have ever seen a gaming table. Hundreds 
are watching the game with anxious and expectant 
looks. A beautiful young woman remains seated at 
the table for along time. In front of her is a pile of 
gold pieces, selecting one after another she places 
them upon the figures. The pile of gold increases, 
when suddenly by an unlucky turn of the card it is 
all won from her, and she calmly rises, bids her 
friends good evening and retires, portraying no dis- 
comforture at her loss. One lady nearly eighty 
years old, very richly attired, with trembling hands 
places upon the figure, not a single piece but a roll 


of sovereigns, she loses and wins alternately, at no 
time putting down less than one hundred dollars, 
and when we came away she was still anxiously 
playing at Rouge-et-noir. 

For shame ! that any civilized government should 
legalize and tolerate this wicked practice, especially 
in a place where the young and innocent are liable 
to be tempted and fall into the snare. 

Shady glens, retired walks, terraced hills, and 
silver streams, allure one for hours to. linger amid 
their fascinating and enrapturing beauties. 

After a refreshing shower we are seated upoc 
the verptuda of our hotel. The scarlet vines which 
completely cover the trellis-work of the veranda 
are dazzling with innumerable gem-like rain drops 
glistening in the setting sun. The rosy flush 
gradually fades away from the distant mountains of 
the Black Forest, until twilight changes to the gray 
of evening. 

To-day is a gala-day here. Flags are flying from 
the old and new scliloss, both castles crowning the 


town. It is the Prince of Prussia's birthday. The 
Crovrn Prince is staying here and the Queen of 
Prussia, Princess Alice and Louis of Hesse, and 
others have already arrived to celebrate the day. 
\Ye are thus afforded an opportunity to see Queen 
Augusta, now Empress. She is tall, and comely look- 
ing, wearing a long train of costly black silk, she 
moves with stately step and every action is dignified, 
and her mild face beams with kindness. 

The Crown Prince and Princess appear to enter 
cheerfully into the spirit of the hour. 

Oar stay here has been pleasant and interesting, 
but the time has arrived to depart. This morning 
we drive to the railway station where there was a 
great commotion. Large loads of trunks and 
carriages filled with attendants announce the 
presence of royalty ; for the rank . of persons in 
Europe is indicated, while traveling, by the number 
of servants and the amount of luggage which they 
take along with them. The* royal family begin to 
arrive and enter a magnificent railway carriage ap- 


propriated to their use. We accompanied tliem on 
the same train as far as Kehl where the palatial car 
was switched off and the rojal company went down 
the Rhine, while we crossed the river to Stras- 




?j©HE Cathedral of Strasbourg, and tlie wonder- 

ful clock which it contains, form together 
the greatest attraction of the city, and 
during the year bring thousands of sight- 
seeing people to Strasbourg. 

The munster^ as it is called by the citizens, was 
commenced by Erwin of Steinbach, in the thirteenth 
century, who died long before it was completed ; in 
fact it was not finished until the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The spire is the highest in the world, and is 
over twenty feet higher than the great Pyramid of 
Cheops in Egypt, It is a marvelous piece of archi- 
tecture, being composed entirely of stone, which is 
cut with such precision that when you approach the 
'city the spire resembles lace- work. 


The interior is vast and imposing. There are 
three separate services being held in various parts 
of the cathedral. We make our way through the 
crowd to a small side door, where a fee is required 
of us, and we ascend the winding and worn stone 
stairway to the roof, from which a wide perspective 
of the city and country around greets our eyes. 
Looking down from the dizzy height, persons walk- 
ing along the streets appear like the merest insects. 
For a small sum an old man offers us books descrip- 
tive of the view ; also, photographs of the munster 
and spire. Near the bell-tower are inserted tablets 
on which are inscribed the names of the different 
sovereigns who have intrepidly undergone the as- 
cent of the spire. I deem it not at all unbecoming 
to receive such an honor, as it is fatiguing and 
attended with some danger. I am asked by the 
watchman in the bell-tower to pull a small wire, 
which invitation I accepted. In an instant, as if by 
magic, all the cathedral bells as well as others over 
the city commenced such a ringing that I was mo- 
mentarily alarmed at what I had done ; but the 


watchman assured me it was opportune and all 
right, as it was the hour for ringing the chimes. 
ThcY are all set in motion by this little wn'e. 

Descending to the nave of the cathedral, we ob- 
tain by the payment of two or three francs a favor- 
able position in front of the marvelous clock. As 
it is near the hour of twelve, people begin to as- 
semble until some three hundred are gathered to 
see it and hear it strike the hour of noon. 

This curious piece of mechanism is a complete 
astronomical almanac, showing the revolutions of 
the heavenly bodies, their positions at any given 
time, and the various changes which they undergo 
for hundreds of years. At midnight, before Janu- 
ary first, the machinery sets this calendar for the 
year. In the lower compartment are figures of a 
child, a youth, a man of middle age, an old man, 
and of death. Every quarter of an hour these step 
forward in their order, from youth to old age, and 
strike the bell, after which they retire. Every day 
at twelve o'clock Death strikes the hour with a 

bone, after which, in regular procession, the twelve 


apostles come forth and marcli in front of a figure 
of the Savior, whose hand is extended to bless them. 
As they pass, each one turns and bows to him, while 
he acknowledges their obeisance bj an inclination of 
the head. When Peter comes forth, a gilded rooster 
perched above the clock flaps his wings and crows 
three times, which loudly echoes through the vast 

There are also seven figures representing the 
seven planets, and each day one of these emerge, 
while the others remain concealed until their respec- 
tive turn. 

The whole structure is over sixty feet in height, 
and was invented between the years 1837 and 1842. 
Before this there had been two other remarkable 
clocks, built in the same place, but none comparable 
to the present one, which has been the pride and 
boast of Strasbourg for the past thirty years. In 
a house near the cathedral is shown the model from 
which the clock was made. 

From here we go to the church of St. Thomas, 
which contains the superbly chiseled monument of 


Marshal Saxe. erected to his memory by Louis the 

Strasbourg is built upon a plain, and is strongly 
fortified. Around the n:ity runs a deep moat which 
can be easily flooded with water. Formerly a Ger> 
man city, it was taken from Germany by the French 
under Louis the Fourteenth, in the year 1681. It 
has lately again been subject to the fortunes of war, 
and belongs once more to the Germans. The 
people are German in their characteristics, although 
they speak the French language. The houses are 
quaint-looking, having high and steep roofs in 
which are frequently to be seen seven and eight 
rows of dormer windows. The women go without 
bonnets, wearing merely a huge bow of either plain 
black or plaid ribbon on their heads. 

At the Hotel D'Angleterre we meet some Ameri- 
cans, which suggests thoughts of home and of those 
we have been so long absent from. We take the 
cars, which in a few hours set us down in Mayence, 
where we rest preparatory to sailing down the 



" A blending of all beauties ; streams and dells, 
Fruit, foliage, crag, wood, cornfield, mountain, ruin, 
And chiefless castles breathiug stem farewells 
From gray but leafy walls, where ruin greenly dwells." 

'HE most charming and interesting views on 
the German's favorite river are between 
Majence and Cologne. Here we see ivy- 
covered ruins of old castles crowning almost 
every mountain. Small steamers ply daily up and 
down the lovely river, which are well patronized, 
not only by the residents of the villages, towns, 
and cities along the Rhine, but by strangers from 
many lands. 

Mayence, or Mainz as the Germans call it, is a 
place of no small importance. It has a powerful 


garrison, and is near to Wiesbaden, the celebrated 
German watering place, from which on pleas- 
ant afternoons much company is attracted to May- 
ence to listen to the performance of the military 
bands. Gutenberg, the inventor of printing was 
born here in 1397. A superior monument of him 
by Thorwaldsen stands in front of the theatre in 
Gutenberg-Platz. There is one name especially 
honored by the ladies of Mainz, and that \& Meissen., 
the minstrel called Frausnlhe., or woman lover, be- 
cause he made the virtues of women the theme of 
his songs. In 1843 the ladies of Mainz erected a 
monument to his memory. 

The remains of a Eoman aqueduct in Mainz 
prove the great antiquity of the city. In the 8th 
century St. Boniface was archbishop of Mainz, 
which was even then a flourishing town. The cele- 
brated sparkling hock is made in Mayence, and 
there are great manufactories of leather, pottery, 
furniture, carriages, and pianos ; a most valuable 
and extensive library, and among museums one of 


Roman antiquities. One collection contains ttie 
wonderful astronomical clock by Alexius Johann. 

We engage our passage down the Rhine, stop- 
ping first at Biebrich, where we see the palace of 
the Duke" of Nassau. Then, Rudesheim, where is 
founded the legend of the lovely Gisela. Next, 
Bingen, which is charmingly situated at the mouth 
of the river Nahe, and has been made memorable 
by Mrs. Norton's beautiful poem, 

" On tlie vine-clad bills of Bingen, 
Fair Bingen on the Rhine." 

Near here is the celebrated Tower of Bishop 
Hatto. I cannot refrain from making room for the 
tradition so movingly described by SoutLey. 

" The summer and autumn hath been so wet^ 
That in winter the corn was growing yet 
'T was a piteous sight to see all around 
The grain lie rotting on the ground. 

Every day the starving poor 
Crowded around Bishop Hatto's door, 
For he had a plentiful last year's store ; 
And all the neighborhood could tell 
His granaries were furnish'd well. 


At last Bishop Hatto appointed a day 

To quiet the poor without delay : 

He bade them to his great barn repair, 

And they should have food for tlie winter there. 

Rejoiced at such tidings, good to hear. 
The poor folk flock'd from far and near ; 
The irreat barn was full as it could hold 
Of women and children, and young and old. 

Then, when he saw it could hold i.o more, 
Bishop Hatto he made fast tie door ; 
And while for mercy on Christ they call. 
He set fire to the barn and burnt them all. 

* I' faith, 'tis an excellent bonfire !' quoth he, 
'And the country is greatly obliged to me 
For ridding it, in these times forlorn, 
Of rats that only consume the corn.' 

So then to his palace returned he, 
And he sat down to his supper merrily. 
And he slept that night like an innocent man ; 
But Bishop Hatto never slept again. 

In the morning, as he entered the hall, 
Where hU picture hung against the wall, 
A sweat like death all o'er him came, 
For the rats had eaten it out of the frame. 


As he look'd there came a man from his farm; 
He had a countenance white with alarm : 
' My lord, I open'd your granaries this morn, 
And the rats had eaten all your corn.' 

Another came running presently, 
And he was as pale as pale could be : 

* Fly ! my lord bishop, fly !' quoth he ; 

* Ten thousand rats are coming this way ; 
The Lord forgive you for yesterday !' 

* I '11 go to my tower on the Ehine,' replied he ; 
' 'T is the safest place in Germany ; 

The walls are high and the shores are steep, 
And the stream is strong, and the water deep !' 

Bishop Hatto fearfully hasten'd away, 
And he cross'd the Rhine without delay, 
And reacli'd his tower and barr'd with care 
All the windows, doors, and looi^-holes there. 

He laid him down and closed his eyes, 

But soon a scream made him arise ; 

He started, and saw two eyes of flame 

On his pillow, from whence the screaming came. 

He listened and look'd : it was only the cat ; 
But the bishop he grew more fearful for that ; 
For she sat screaming, mad with fear, 
A t the army of rats that were drawing near. 


For they have swum over the river so deep, 
And they have climb'd the shores so steep ; 
And now, by tliousands, up they crawl 
To the holes and windows in the wall. 

Down on his knees the bishop fell, 
"And faster and faster his beads did he tell, 
As louder and louder, drawing near, 
The saw of their teeth without, he could hear. 

And in at the windows and in at the door. 
And through the walls by thousands they pour, 
And down through the ceiling, and up through the floor, 
From the right and the left, from behind and before, 
From witliin and without, from above and below — 
And all at once to the bishop they go. 

They have whetted their teeth against the stones, 
And now they pick the bishop's bones ; 
They gnaw'd the flesh from every limb, 
For they were sent to do judgment on him." 

At St. Goarliausen is a singular grotto, where a 
noise like the blast of a bugle or the firing of a gun 
causes fifteen distinct echoes to be returned. 

The scenery from here to St. Goar is wild and 
majestic. A short distance below is the extensive 


fortress of Elieinfels, which was blown up by the 
French in 1794. 

Boppart now comes in sight. It is an ancient 
town of Eoman origin. Before reaching Coblenz, 
on the left, we come to Stolzenfels, a splendid castle 
belonging to the Emperor of Prussia, and where he 
entertained Queen Victoria ai:id Prince Albert in 
magnificent style in 1845. 

Coblenz is the capital of Rhenish Prussia, and is 
situated at the mouth of the Moselle. It was built 
by the PtomanSj who called it "Confluentia." Here 
the grandsons of Charlemagne met to divide his 
great empire into France, Germany, and Italy. It 
is the birth-place of Madam Sontag, the great 
'prima donna^ who died in Mexico in 1854. From 
a place near here is procured the celebrated Seltzer 

Across the river is situated the vast rocky fortress 
of Ehrenbreitstein. The fortifications of Coblenz 
give it the title of the Gibraltar of the Bhine. It 
is said to have been founded by the Romans under 
Julian, and in the Thirty Years War it was a place 


of great strategetical importance. The magazines 
will hold provisions enough to support 8000 men 
ten jears ; while the cisterns on the platform at the 
top will hold water enough to last three years. 

We are again in motion, and as we approach 
Neuwied a thick fog suiTounds us, which obliterates 
the fine view, and compels the captain to come to 
anchor in the middle of the river. 

It was noon of the next day before our little 
steamer could navigate the channel again in safety. 
Again in motion, we passed Nuns' Island, on which 
rests the castle of Rolandseck, where Roland so 
often cast his sorrowful eyes, while his betrothed 
was so many years imprisoned there. 

On the right, towering up to the sky, is the rug- 
ged Dragon's Rock, or Drachenfels, so called from 
the legend of a dragon which once inhabited a 
cavern in the side of the rock. Perched on the 
summit is a ruined castle which was so long the 
home of the robber chiefs of the Rhine, and which 
has been enchantingly described by Byron — 


" The castled crag of Drachenfds 
Frowns o'er the wide and winding Rhine." 

The last importaut town before reaching Cologne 
is Bonn, founded by the Empress Helena, mother 
of Constantine, in the year 320. In this town there 
is a fine bronze statue of the Empress, also one of 
Beethoven, and the house in* which he resided. 
Bonn has a famous University and the finest and 
most extensive university buildings, perhaps, in all 
Europe. It has a library containing 140,000 vol- 
umes, a museum of aaitiquities, an archaeological 
collection, a cabinet of natural history, and a large 
riding academy in the basement. It has a distinct 
building for anatomy ; and its botanical gardens^ its 
zooloo'ical and mineraloo^ical collections are -a full 
mile away. It has also an astronomical observatory 
and a fine agricultural academy, while catholic and 
protestant students have different divinity schools. 
The number of professors and tutors is about one 
hundred. From Bonn down the river to Cologne 
is but a short distance. The Rhine is to the Ger- 
^ mans what the Nile is to the Egyptians. The 


people along the country througli which it runs are 
apparently thrifty and happy. Every foot of the 
soil is under cultivation, even to the sides of the 
mountains, which are terraced and planted with 
vineyards. It being the time of the vintage, we 
have seen hundreds vigorously employed gathering 
grapes for making the much prized Ehine wine. 
Among others, we saw the famous vineyards of 
Rudesheim, Johannisberger, and Hockheimer. 

The shores of the Rhine abound with towers, 
castles, crags, and fortresses, around which cling 
legends and fabulous traditions, all dear to the Ger- 
man jnind, and romantically interesting to tourists, 
especially those interested in the history and the 
literature of Germany. 




E are assigned pleasant rooms in the Hotel 
^^^"^ cle Hollande looking out upon the Rhine. 
p The windows are double like two glass 
doors which open sideways instead of 
moving up and down. A handsome porcelain 
stove with white ground and colored figures stands 
in the corner. The floor is laid in patterns of pol- 
ished oakc The walls are painted with ornamental 
designs and the furniture is in keeping with the 
decorations. While seated in this room looking 
out upon the dark waters of the Rhine^ the moon 
slowly rose from behind the distant hills, throwing 
its silver light upon the wide sweeping river whose 
ripples broke it into ten thousand sparkling dia- 



I am awakened from my musing by the ringing 
of a bell. It was a servant presenting several 
cards, on which were written names of commission- 
ers for the most desirable and reliable establish- 
ments to buy eau de cologne^ etc. 

This being a bright clear and invigorating morn- 
ing we drive to the house No. 10 Sternengasse in 
which Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577. 
Maria de Medici died in the same house in 1642. 
In one of the rooms are a few of the earliest works 
of the master, among them a painting of a child and 
kitten, the price of which was four thousand dollars. 

On the front of the house is a portrait of Rubens 
wearing a low crowned, broad brimmed hat decorat- 
ed with an ostrich plume. 

From here we are guided to the celebrated 
church of St. Ursula. 

Knocking at the door of the church of St. Ursula 
containing the bones of eleven thousand virgins, we 
are admitted by a woman. In the walls overhead, 
in the pavement and everywhere we look are glass 
cases filled with these unsightly bones. 


The legend of Saint Ursula is a grim and terri- 
ble one, daughter of a Christian Prince of Britain, 
she was demanded in marriage by a Pagan Prince 
whom she abhorred ; bat, fearing the results of re- 
fusing him she pretended to consent on condition 
that she might have a delay of three years, a grant 
of money and ten noble companions, each, as well 
as herself, attended by one thousand virgins. The 
three years were passed mostly in nautical exercises, 
and when the nuptial day arrived Saint Ursula and 
her companions prayed for a storm, which arose 
duly and wafted them to the mouth of the Rhine 
and then up to Basle, where they left their ships 
and went on foot to Rome. When returning to 
Cologne they fell in with the Huns who murdered 
them all because Ursula refused to marry their 
leader. The people of Cologne buried their bodies 
and subsequently built a church in honor of the 
Virgin Martyrs. 

The Cathedral at Cologne is one of the most mag- 
nificent Gothic monuments in the world. The 
heart of Maria de Medici is buried under a slab in 


the pavement. * The cathedral has on the exterior 
a double range of flymg buttresses and intervening 
piers and a wilderness of richly wrought pinnacles. 
I walked with reverence amid its lofty arches and 
columns which arose high and far above me, light- 
ed up ethereally by the light streaming through the 
painted glass windows. 

This colossal pile was commenced in 1248, and 
is not yet completed. Probably it never will be 
finished according to the original plan, as the name 
even of its first architect is lost, and as it is estimated 
that it will require over five millions of dollars to 
finish the structure. There is a les^end in Coloo:ne 
that Satan, who became jealous at the vastness of the 
undertaking, vowed that it should never be com- 
pleted ; and hence the delay from century to cen- 
tury is the result of his wicked scheming. 

Everywhere we go we are importuned by agents, 

whose business it is to call rpon all strangers who 

visit Cologne to recommend to them the only 

place where the genuine cologne can be obtained. 

There are some sixteen or seventeen manufactories 


all claiming to be the original inventors of this wel 
known perfume. There are Maria Farina, Johann: 
Farina, Anton Maria Farina, Johanna Anton Farina, 
and several other Farina's. All exhibiting medals, 
and official stamps declaring the cologne which they 
offer to be the bona fide article. These agents cling 
to yon with pertinacity, expecting you to make an ex- 
travagant purchase of them. It is conceded by trav- 
elers that the people along the river suppose, " Die 
Englandier hahen viel geW^ — the Englishman has 
lots of money. 

The country from Cologne to Aix la Chapelle is 
no exception to the rest of German scenery. Every 
little patcji of land is tilled. The Vv^omen as well as 
the men are toiling in the fields. They tramp 
about in heavy wooden shoes conveying upon their 
heads baskets filled with vegetables. 

Invalids gather at Aix la Chapelle to drink the 
water of its warm sulphur springs. The air is pure 
and the climate healthy. At the principal hotel a 
band of music is employed every day. 

The next place of attraction before reaching 


Briisssls is Liege, owing to its extensive iron manii- 
lactcries, termed the Birmingham of Belgium. As 
we enter the city at night, the country for miles 
around is illuminated with a hundred flames burst- 
ing from the chimneys of its great factories, pre- 
senting the appearance of a city on fire. 

From here to Brussels the distance is seventy 
rniles through a delightful country. In the railway 
carriage we become acquainted with a Paissian 
f^entleman and two ladies who were on their wav 
horn St. Petersburg to Paris. As soon as they as- 
certained that we were Americans they became quite 
sociable and made many inquiries about our coun- 
try. They spoke English fluently, and evidently 
belonged to the higher classes of Russian society. 

I was nauch interested wdien they began to de- 
scribe a visit of some Americans last summer to their 
Emperor at his palace on the Black Sea, which 
created no little sensation among the people of St^ 
Petersburg. Most of their papers had published 
the address which was presented to the Emperor, 


and the names of the Quaker City passengers, 
which were attached to it. 

After their glowing description we informed 
them that we were cognisant of the event to which 
they had been alluding, and that we had had the 
pleasure of forming part of the Emperor's guests. 




^IpLTHOUGH Belgium is comparatively a 
^h small nation and covers but a limited por- 
^f(M tion of Europe, I believe it ranks first on 
^ ^ the continent in its manufactories and en- 

Tlie Belgians are evidently the Yankees of 
Europe. In no city that we have visited is there 
such an air of neatness, splendor, and smartness, as 
in Brussels. It has many elegant buildings. The 
streets are wide and at night brilliantly lighted. 
This fair city is quite a resting place for travelers 
going from England and France to the Rhine. The 
air at all times of the year is clear and bracing, 
which makes it a desirable and healthy residence 
for persons of delicate constitution. 


■ The houses are built after tlie manner of those 
in Paris, and the French hinguage is spoken through- 
out the citj although the Flemish is the native 

The Palace of Leopold, the King, is an elegant 
structure and superbly furnished. Near by is the 
one that was presented to the Prince of Orange by 
the city of Brussels, and afterward occupied by 
him, and the Old Palace, which Vv'as at one period 
tlie richest of all the palaces of Europe. The 
Hotel de Yille is a magnificent specimen of 
Gothic architecture adorned with many statues. In 
front of it is the statue of the Crusader, Godfrey 
de Bouillon. On one side of the Place Roy ale is 
the handsome building of Parliament erected by 
Maria Theresa. 

There are many pleasure-inviting parks. In the 
one fronting the capital we enjoy the music of a 
band which plays here every day. 

The Museum is exceedingly interesting. Here 
we see the works of the old Flemish school of art, 
also those of the modern masters. The "Deluge," 


by Combers, ''The Song of Angels," by Paul 
Veronese, and. " Christ bearing the Cross," by 
Rubens, are among the most admired in the gal- 

Among the churches St. Gudule stands preemi- 
nent. Our intelligent guide points out the strangely 
yet beautifully carved pulpit, and the matchless 
stained glass windows, as ranking above all others. 

Of course we gave some time to the world-re- 
nowned lace manufactories. In large rooms lighted 
by windows painted white, we see between thirty 
and forty women and girls bending over cush- 
ions in which are innumerable extremely fine 
needles. From these points which are kept 
crossins: and recrossin^ until the whole seems 
an intricate mass of the finest conceivable 
threads, come forth the sprigs, buds and flowers of 
the costly and rich lace. One of the work-women 
informed me that it was so injurious to the eyes 
that they could not work at lace making over ten 
years, as at the end of that time their eye-sight 
begins to be impaired. In the sales-room point- 
lace over-dresses, veils, shawls, sacks, and trim- 


mings were exhibited. It appeared almost incredi- 
ble that they Trere manufactured in such a weari- 
some manner. Some of the articles require the 
labor of two or three women several months. 

Point lace, or ])oint aTagnille is made entirely 
with the needle ; and after the ijoint cTAlencon and 
the famous iJOint de Vemse^ which is not now manu- 
factured, ranks the highest in value. The ^oint 
applique is made by sewing sprigs of real point 
lace upon a plain net, while in the real point lace, 
the mesh and all are made at the same time. The 
point cTAlengon is made of pure, hand-spun linen 
thread which is worth from five hundred to six 
hundred dollars a pound. Some English writer 
says that Honiton lace owes its popularity to Queen 
Yictoria, who commiserating the sad condition of 
the Devon lace makers determined to aid them ; 
and to this end had her wedding lace of Honiton, 
which immediately brought it into fashion, and it 
has continued expensive ever since. 

Many of the houses of Brussels have mirrors sus- 
pended above their windows in such a manner that 


those within crai see reflected all that is going on 
in the street without being seen themselves. 

In front of the Grande Breta2;ne the carriao:e is 
waiting to convey us twelve miles to the battlefield 
of Waterloo. Our course is through the Alloe 
Verte with its great trees and interlacing branches. 
Here the elite of Belgium's capital take their even- 
in 2: ride. For a \on^ distance we drive beneath 
shade trees planted on either side of the road. 
Arriving at the village of Waterloo, the little 
tavern was pointed out where Wellington stayed 
part of the night before the famous struggle. Here 
he and his chief officers decided to attend the 
Duchess of Richmond's ball to prevent sudden sur- 
prise in the city of Brussels. They attended the 
ball as if nothing important was transpiring. 
Wellington left at midnight, and before morning 
all the divisions had broken up their encampments, 
and were on the march to meet the French. 

Our driver halts to give us time to go inside of 
the chapel containing monuments to the memory 
of the distinguished officers who fell during the 


battle. Approaching Waterloo, on the right we 
pass the cottage where resided Yictor Hugo, and 
where he w^ote his matchless description of the 

Here commences a strife among the guides to see 
who should be employed. One declared that his 
father was in the battle, another that his grandfather 
was one of Napoleon's generals. Finally one pre- 
sents a well written letter from Yictor Hugo, re- 
commending him and verifying the fact that this 
guide accompanied Hugo through all his studious 
wanderings of many weeks over the ground. Ad- 
mitting the truth of the old saying " the last is the 
best," we employed him and were soon climbing 
up the steps of the lofty and victorious mound, on 
the summit of which is a colossal lion lookino- 


toward France. The guide now takes his position 
facing the north, and commences his description. 
Turning gradually to the east, south, and west he 
pours forth a torrent of words, stopping every 
little while to take breath. His " speech would 
have done credit to a Sumner or a Disraeli. 


'^ There stands the Ilougoumont. To the right La 
Haye Sainte. Yonder swept down the brave High- 
landers carrying everything before them. In that 
deep ditch fell the fiercely charging French unseen 
by their commander, until it was filled with men 
and horses fi3rming a level surface over which 
charged the contending armies. That distant rise 
of ground was taken and retaken four or five 
times. Where we stand the Prince of Orange fell 
wounded. That monument is the place where the 
courageous Hanoverians struggled. The other 
one marks the death of Colonel Gordon. 

Along that road came Napoleon galloping, sure 
that he had carried the day. Over those distant 
woods rolled the dust of Blucher^s swiftly advanc- 
ing army whose presence decided the struggle.'' 
Thus the description went on. The speaker be- 
coming more and more eloquent, his voice growing 
louder and his manner more excited until we 
almost fancied that we heard the roar of cannon 
and actually saw the smoke of the battle. 

It was the unanimous opinion that our guide 


had well earned his five francs, from each one, which 
was willingly paid him. 

After a limited time in the Museum, filled with 
relics of Waterloo, we journey back to Brussels. 



'NTWERP being the last place of our sojourn 
h on the Continent, a few days will be de- 
Mfm. voted to this antique city, and then good-bye 
to the palaces, cathedrals, and galleries of 
art, of the Old World. Our journey through Scot- 
land and Ireland will be rapid, the main purpose 
being to observe the condition and characteristics 
of the people and the scenery of the two countries. 
Antwerp was an ancient city at the height of its 
prosperity three or four centuries ago, when it was 
the first commercial city of Europe, having some- 
times two and three thousand ships of all nations 
in its harbor at once, and a population of some 
200,000. In 1576 it was sacked by the Spaniards, 
and burned. In 1588 it was captured by Prince 


Alexander of Parma, and two hundred years after, 
it fell into the hands of the French. 

Although the greatness of this once powerful 
city has departed, it still contains much that cannot 
fail to instruct and interest the tourist. There are 
fine collections of the works of Rubens and Yan- 
dych. The latter was born here. The celebrated 
chef d'oeuvre, Tlie Descent from the Cross ^ in the 
Cathedral, painted by Rubens, is one of the finest 
by that master. The life-like appearance of all the 
figures, and the naturalness of their positions as 
they tenderly lower the Savior from the cross, can- 
not be surpassed. In the square fronting our hotel 
is a well executed statue of the immortal painter, 
and on the Rue de Rubens is the house where Ru- 
bens died. As we wander through the handsome 
church of St. Jaques, and come to the vault con- 
taining Rubens and his family, I cannot but be im- 
pressed with the thought that although nearly three 
hundred years have intervened since the master 
painter was born, his works still live, and bear over 
the world the inextinguishable fame of the artist. 


While in tlie Cathedral of Notre Dame, a funeral 
procession enters and marches under the lofty arches 
of this grand and solemn temple. The organ sends 
forth its sublime music, while the choir responds to 
its tones. As they approach the high altar, on 
which flicker dim lights, and deposit the burial case, 
the throng falls back on either side, and remains 
transfixed, while the solemn requiem is recited for 
the repose of the dead. 

The house of Charlas the Fifth, like many others 
in Antwerp, is a grotesque combination of architec- 
ture, with high gables tapering to a pinnacle in 
which are six, and sometimes seven rows of windows. 

The facade of the houses are adorned with quaint 

old tracery dating back to the days when the Span- 
iards were the rulers. 

I am much pleased with the markets and amused 
with the market women, who are so oddly dressed. 
They wear on their heads a comically shaped bon- 
net, being made of stravv^ the front turned up 
and lined, and a cape of straw with a very broad 
ribbon placed on plainly above it. In traveling 


one will continually come in contact with the sub- 
lime and ridiculous. The markets here, as in most 
of the European cities, are in the open squares, and 
when all the stands and wagons are piled high 
with tempting fruits and fresh vegetables, I am 
reminded of the horticultural fairs and festivals in 
my own native country. Every article is handled 
with that care and neatness which we have observed 
in all the markets since landing in Austria. 

To-night, while sitting in my room, a soft and 
gentle voice commenced singing sweetly beneath 
the window. It rose and died away upon the eve- 
ning air like music from some fairy land. One after 
another plaintive German air was breathed forth. 
Throwing up the sash, I saw in the dim light of the 
street lamp a poorly clad woman looking wistfully 
at my window. Money was a poor reward, for that 
sweet voice will ever linger around me, although 
I shall never hear the street singer of Antwerp 

After viewing the King's Palace, we take passage 
on a small iron steamer, and glide down between 


the level shores of the Scheldt, out upon the German 
Ocean, on our way to Newcastle on the Tyne. 

The afternoon is fair and lovely, and as the de- 
clining sun sinks beneath the western horizon, we 
have only thoughts of a pleasant voyage. About 
midnight a violent commotion on board told us that 
a gale had sprung up, and our little steamer was 
struggling with a heavy sea. 

To-day is a gloomy Sunday ; the gale has been 
increasing all day, until it blows a hurricane. Our 
captain informs us that the sails are blown to shreds, 
and the steamer is laboring heavily. He also tells 
us that he dare not approach the shores of England 
as long as the gale is blowing, and we are therefore 
heading out to sea. An attempt was made by the 
captain to eat his dinner, sitting on the floor of the 
cabin ; but a heavy sea striking the ship, he was 
rolled with the dishes and dinner into one corner 
of the room. All night long the furious gale con- 
tinued, and there was some fear expressed by the 
officers that we would not ride out the storm. 

The third day the wind subsided, and we ap- 


proached the coast and sailed up the busy Tjne, 
thankful that we had arrived in safety. 

The North Sea is noted for its severe storms, and 
this one has been of unusual severity. The English 
papers were filled for days with accounts of terrible 
shipwrecks and loss of life along the coast of Eng- 
land during this gale. 

We are once more in an English city, as the smoke 
and immense iron manufactories indicate. There 
;are many massive and elegant buildings in New- 
castle, but all are darkly colored and their beauty 
spoiled by the everlasting smoke. After one day's 
rest here, we take the cars for Melrose Abbey, Ab- 
botsford, Edinburgh, and the Highlands of Scot- 



T twelve o'clock we leave Newcastle. 
Passing swiftly by the Duke of Northumber- 
land's place, we are soon surrounded by 
Scottish scenery. The fields are divided 
by hawthorn hedges or low stone walls, and the 
green velvety hills abound with flocks. In each 
farm-yard are numbers of hay-stacks put up with 
care and crossed with ropes. Humble cottages are 
scattered along the way. 

At length the ancient Abbey of Melrose became 
visible in the distance. This famous auld abbey, 
made illustrious by the description in Walter Scott's 
"Lay of the Last Minstrel," stands upon the banks 
of the Tweed. One cannot but admire the vener- 
able ruin. It is one of the choicest specimens of 


the gotliic style. There are remains of splendid 
carvings, and its gargoyles and corhels still retain 
their position and perfect workmanship. The floor 
is of grass, and the sky is the roof There are 
traces of the cloisters and of the monastic buildings. 
This was the favorite resort of Sir Walter Scott, 
who copied many of its quaint gargoyles for the 
decoration of Abbotsford, his beautiful residence. 
The roofless walls of Melrose Abbey are many of 
them thickly overgrown with ivy, and the appear- 
ance of the ruin by moonlight is dreamy and ro- 
mantic in the extreme. 

From Melrose to Abbotsford is a pleasant drive of 
three or four miles. Arriving in the vestibule, you 
see on a table a huge hand-bell which you ring if 
you are hardy enough, and a servant appears to 
conduct you through the fine mansion of Sir Wal- 
ter. He is an excellent guide, possessing the most 
rare qualifications of those of&cials — he knows when 
to hold his tongue — and is withal so full of infor- 
mation, and so polite and gentlemanly, that you feel 
almost ashamed to offer him a fee for his services. 


He takes it of course, and thanks you, not seeming 
wounded in his dignity in the least. So accustomed 
is the tourist to giving sixpences and shillings that 
he hardly knows when it is proper to omit the cus- 
tom. One irreverent countryman of mine, being 
on Windsor Terrace when the Queen and one of the 
' princesses took an airing there, declared that his 
first impulse was to offer her majesty a shilling, 
whiclx. he declared he was fully persuaded would be 
received with the inevitable smile and " thank you, 


Abbotsford was once an old cloister, but the 
present house and grounds are entirely the work of 
Sir Walter It is surrounded by beautiful scenery, 
and the interior of the mansion is rich in collections 
of armor and fine paintings, and the library is very 
extensive and valuable. The place is now occupied 
by the only surviving grand- daughter of the great 
writer. In the library there are elegant glass cases 
filled with curiosities and presents from distinguished 
persons — among them a splendid snuff-box from Na- 
poleon I. Over the library door is a picture of Mary, 


Queen of Scots, after she was beheaded — that is, a 
picture of the severed head. It is far less " pretti- 
fied" than most of the representations of her, and 
strikes the beholder at once as a true portrait. 
While looking at this life-like portrait, and reflect- 
ing upon the cares of the unfortunate Mary, I must 
confess that there is that in the expression of the 
foce which speaks eloquently to the hearts of sym- 
pathizers with the unhappy queen. 

Leading out from the library on the right is the 
private study of Sir Walter, with his leather-covered 
chair and table just as he last used them. Near 
the table is a chair made from the wood of the 
house where Wallace was betrayed. This study is 
richly furnished to the ceiling with books, ap- 
proached by an elegant iron staircase leading to 
galleries that extend all around the room. At the 
left as you enter the study is a very small room or 
closet which Sir Walter called his '^ speah-a-hity 
In this is a cast of his head taken after death. The 
one thing noticeable about this cast, and ever to be 
remembered, is the extraordinary length of ^ho 


upper lip. The head, as everybody knows, is ex- 
tremely high, but uot wide in proportion. The 
guide offered stereoscopic views of this bust which 
1 have never seen for sale anywhere else. 

This morninor the Scotch mist is fallino;, but it 
does not prevent our seeing the city of Edinburgh. 

Edinburgh abounds with historic associations dear 
to the heart of every Scotchman. It is truly a 
grand city. From Calton Hill the finest view is 
afforded. Princes street, with its elegant stores and 
hotels, stretches far away through the center of 

In a prettily laid-out square on Princes street is 
the lofty gothic monument of Sir Walter Scott, 
adorned with scenes in high relief from his roman- 
ces. Meg Merrilies is of course the most striking of 
the characters, and the figure is admirably done. 

Towering high above the city oh the summit of 
a rock from four to five hundred feet perpendicular 
height, is Edinburgh Castle. This is an ancient 
fortress erected by Edward the Second, of England, 
and many times in the history of this fortress have 


the flags of Scotland and of England floated alter- 
nately from its tower. This rock and fortress give 
the town a very picturesque appearance. Edinburgh 
is often called the "Athens of Scotland." 

We walk down Cannongate street to the house 
of John Knox. Over the door is the following in- 
scription : "Love the Lord above all, and thy 
neighbor as thyself" The great reformer is buried 
in the cemetery of St. Giles Cathedral. His house 
is a dilapidated looking building, and at one of the 
windows is a figure representing him, and indicating 
the place from which he preached to the populace. 

The University is one of the finest in Eurojoe, and 
has in its library nearly one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand volumes. 

Edinburgh has numerous churches, many of which 
are well known in America, through their earnest 
and able preachers who have occupied our pulpits 
at various times. 

Holyrood Palace is a massive old structure, well 
identified with the history of Scotland. In its gal- 
leries are the mythical portraits of one hundred and 


six Scottish Kings. The most important of all the 
rooms is the one once occupied by Mary, Queen of 
Scots. We are told that everything we see is just 
as it was placed by herself On a small table is her 
work-box embroidered with silk, the design being 
Jacob's Ladder. This the unfortunate Mary worked 
• when she was but twelve years of age. The cov- 
ering of the chairs were also needle- worked by her. 
Beside the bed stands the infant basket of her son, 
James the Sixth. Her dressing room is hung with 
old tapestry, and in another room is the stone on 
which Darnley and the beautiful Mary knelt when 
they were married. Another room is pointed out 
as the one where Eizzio was murdered. The blood 
stains are still shown. Here also is the chamber 
where King James was aroused from his sleep at 
midnight, by the swift-flying courier who informed 
him of the death of Queen Elizabeth. What memories 
cluster around one while visiting these old castles 
and palaces in Scotland and England ! England is 
a great' and powerful nation, and at present her 
government is one of the wisest and best upon the 


earth ; but wliat a liistory have England and Scot- 
land! The strifes, envies, jealousies, and ambitions 
of her Kings and Queens have been the cause of 
crimes and sufferings enough to appall the stoutest 

To-day is Sunday, and as the bells toll the hour 
of service everything breathes a spirit of calm 
repose. Old and young are Trending their way 
slowly to the kirks. 

" Slowly the throng moves o'er the tomb-paved gi'ound, 
The aged man, the bowed down, the blind. 
Led by the thoughtless boy, and he who breathes 
"With pain, and eyes the new-made grave well pleased; 
These, mingled with the young, the gay, approach 
The house of God ; these, spite of their ills, 
A glow of gladness feel ; with silent piaise 
They enter in ; a placid stillness reigns 
Until the man of God, worthy the name, 
Opens the book and reverentially 
The stated portion reads." 

The preacher has made a solemn and effective 
appeal both morning and afternoon ; and as the 
congregation quietly disperse each one wears a look 

SCOTLAND. 4]^ 7 

of Christian though tfuln ess, showing that the lessons 
of the hour have not been unheeded. 

The sun is going down, but its golden light still 
lingers upon the uplands, and as night spreads her 
sable mantle, it closes a day whose hours have been 
full, rich, and peaceful — my first Sunday in Chris- 
tian Scotland. 



^@HE famous Highlands of Scotland are 

^^.y.^^^ more interesting to lovers of Scott's ro- 

<^t5~l^ mances and sono^s tlian to others. There 



is hardly a lake, or mountain, or glen not 
immortalized by him. '^Ellen's Isle," " Lanrick 
Mead," " The Trossack's Gorge," and numberless 
other places connected with The Lady of the Lake 
and other works of his, are eagerly visited by trav- 
elers. The mountains, Ben Nevis, Ben Avon, Ben 
Lomond, Ben-y-Gloe and the numerous lakes or 
lochs are visited by stage coaches during the sum- 
mer. The scenery is grand and wild. From the 
Highlands and the Highlanders, the lochs and bens, 
we arrive at Glasgow by the Caledonian railway. 
Glasgow is very different in appearance from Edin- 


burgh. It is located upon the banks of the Clyde. 
and is the chief commercial city of Scotland. In 
one of the squares is a fine equestrian statue of 
Queen Victoria and one of the Prince of Wales. 

The Cathedral of Glasgow is surrounded with 
associations connecting it intimately with the his- 
tory of Scotland. It now belongs to the Protes- 
tants. Surrounding it is an extensive burying 
ground. Among the monuments is one erected .j 
the memory of John Knox. It is in this Cathedral 
that part of the scenes of Rob Roy was laid. The 
Royal Exchange, the Bank of Scotland, and the 
parks are all vf orthy of being visited. From Glasgow 
the sail down the Clyde is remarkable, from the fact 
that along its shores can be seen in process of con- 
struction so many of the great iron steamships 
which are now found on every ocean a^nd every sea. 

Bidding '-'' giide hye^^ to the land of Robert Burns 
we cross the channel to Ireland. The country through 
which we travel is enlivening, for Ireland is not the 
commonplace country that some suppose. The air 
is delip-htful and invio:oratino^. Most of the land is 


devoted to grazing purposes, and flocks of superior 
horses, cattle, and sheep are cropping the smooth 
tender grass. Here and there is the usual hut. It is 
made of stone and sometimes whitewashed. It has 
a thatched roof often overgrown Avith moss, and 
there is one door and generally one window. Each 
house has a small patch of vegetables and the inevi- 
table pig and cow. 

I can hardly realize that this small island has fur- 
nished the vast multitude of Irish emigrants which 
has been pouring upon the shores of America for 
the past fifty years. 

Arriving at Dublin we find a magnificent city. 
Sackville street, its principal thoroughfare, almost 
equals Broadway, New York, the Strand or Oxford 
Street, London, or the Boulevards of Paris. 

Dublin has many fine buildings, the Custom 
House on the bank of the Liifey, ranking first. 
Near the Bank of Ireland is the celebrated Trinity 
College from which have emanated some of the most 
learned scholars of modern times. The students 
wear a peculiar flat black hat. which does not add 


much to their appearance, but as this hat marks 
them as being students of Truiitj College they as- 
sume much arrogance in wearing it. We attend 
service at St. Patrick's Cathedral. Its isles are 
crowded with richly- attired and well-bred people. 

Dublin prides itself upon its aristocracy. 

In Dublin I have my first experience in riding in 
the jaunting car peculiar to Ireland. The Irishman 
terms it "a cab with wheels inside." Holding 
from three to four persons they go flying up and 
down every street, and it requires some practice to 
remain comfortably seated without falling off 
After inspecting Dublin castle, the residence of the 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, we call at Kildare, 
Limerick, Blarney Castle, and Cork. 

At Cork the guide leads the way to the church of 
the Holy Trinity, Father Mathew's church, his statue, 
and the Queen's College!^ 

From Cork we sail down the lovely "Silver Lee." 
On either side are the ivy and moss covered ruins of 
old castles and towers. We listen involuntarily for 


" The bells of Shanclon 

That sound so grand on 

The jDleasant waters of the Silver Lee." 

Arrivino: at the Cove of Cork, or Queenstown as 
it is no^y called, v\^e remain for two days at tlie 
Queen's Hotel, our windows looking out upon one 
of the finest harbors in the world. 

This clear and crisp November morning we see 
the powerful steamer which is to bear us across the 
ocean lying quietly at anchor in the offing. 

Going on board \\q, find our stateroom in order 
awaiting our coming, having been secured in Liver- 
pool by telegraph. 

Through storm and calm we are borne swiftly 
back to our native land, and my great journey is 
ended. As 1 lay down my pen I may add that 
through all the different countries which we have 
traveled, whether among the sturdy Britons or the 
hardy Alpine mountaineers, the happy Germans or 
the more reserved Russians, among the swarthy 
Turks and Egyptians and even among the wild 
Arabs of Syria, we have been kindly received. 


Access has been granted us to palaces and private 
residences of the Old World and the more sacred 
places of the Orient, simply because wo were 

I am grateful that it has been my fortune and 
pleasure to have seen this majestic and sublime pan- 
orama of the different nations, kindred, and tongues 
of the world; and the lessons and experiences 
which I have learned, will go with me until I am 
called to start on that inevitable and mysterious 
journey from which no messages are sent back 
and from which no traveler ever returns. 

" Coelura lion auimum mutant qui trans mare current." 


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